Main Article Content

Stepan Akterian


Some perfumery and cosmetic products represent mixtures and they include large parts of solvents as ethanol, water, acetone and isopropyl alcohol. Solvents as pure hexane and ethanol-water mixtures are used in the solvent extraction of oil-bearing plant materials and herbs. The goal of this study was the emissions of volatile solvents released during above pointed productions to be evaluated. It was found that the specific evaporation rate varies from 1.2 kg/(m2.h) (for pure methoxy-propanol) to 66 kg/(m2.h) (for three-component mixture including acetone). The evaporation rate is higher for solvents with higher vapour pressure and at a higher velocity of surrounding air. The evaporation is less intensive from pure solvents than their mixtures. The time for the evaporation from a film of solvents and their mixtures was also evaluated. It varies from 14 s (for acetone) to 9 min (for methoxy-propanol). Practical applications: The evaluation of volatile solvent emissions is a mandatory step in the design of plants for manufacturing perfumery, cosmetics, deriving essential and edible oils by means of organic solvents. Most of volatile organic solvents used are highly flammable and healthy hazardous. For assuring fire safety and safety-health working conditions and environment the ventilation system must be designed on the base of these emissions evaluated. The obtained results were applied for plant design of the company "Star Nails Bulgaria" Ltd. Plovdiv for manufacturing cosmetic products.

Article Details


ASHRAE Standard 55-2013. Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. Atlanta, USA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2013

Bulgarian government regulation № Iз-1971 for building and technical rules and standards for assuring fire safety. Sofia, Bulgaria: Ministry of the Interior, 2009 [in Bulgarian]

Bulgarian government regulation № 7 for the limit values of emissions of volatile organic com-pounds released into the environment. Sofia, Bulgaria: Council of Ministers, 2003[in Bulgarian]

Carrier W.H. The temperature of evaporation. ASHVE Transactions, 1918, 24: 25-50.

Council directive 1999/13/EC of 11 March 1999 on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain activities and installations. Brussels, EU: The European Parliament and European council, 1999

DDBST: Dortmund Data Bank Software & Separation Technology GmbH for vapour-liquid equilibrium and other physical data of pure components and mixtures. Calcula-tions by Antoine Equation accessed on 2018-05-02.

Engineering toolbox. Evaporation from a water surface, accessed on 2018-09-04.

ISO 7730: 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment - analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2005.

Haynes W. M. Physical constant of organic compounds. In: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (W. Haynes ed.) (97-th ed.). CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017. pp. 3.1-3.576. eBook ISBN: 978-1-4987-5429-3.

Hofman H. Evaporation rates of organic liquids. Industrial and engineering chemistry, 1932, 24(2): 135-140

Mackay D., van Wesenbeeck I. Correlation of Chemical Evaporation Rate with Vapor Pressure. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48: 10259−10263

Orosa J.A., Oliveira A.C. Indoor Air Standards and Models. In: Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments, Green Energy and Technology (J.A. Orosa and A.C Oliveira Eds), Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2012, pp. 15-47. Print ISBN: 978-1-4471-2335-4, E-book ISBN: 978-1-4471-2336-1

Parsons R.A. (Ed.) ASHRAE Handbook: Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Applications. (SI Edition) ASHRAE Publisher. 1999, 827 pages. Print ISBN: 978-1883413729

Poling B., Thomson G., Friend D., Rowley R., Wilding W. Physical and Chemical Data. In: Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (D. Green and R. Perry Eds.) (Eighth edition). McGraw-Hill co, 2008. pp. 2.1-2.517, Print ISBN: 978-0-07-151125-3, eBook ISBN: 978-0-07-154209-4

Poósa T., Varju E. Dimensionless evaporation rate from free water surface at tubular artificial flow. Energy Procedia, 2017, 112: 366-373

Rohwer C. Evaporation from free water surfaces. Technical bulletin of U.S. dept. of agriculture, 1931, No 271: 1-96.

Smith C.C, Lof G., Jones R. Measurement and analysis of evaporation from an inactive outdoor swimming pool. Solar Energy, 1994, 53(I): 3-7

How to Cite
AKTERIAN, Stepan. Evaluating the vapour evaporation from the surface of pure organic solvents and their mixtures. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 77-84, mar. 2020. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 26 may 2020. doi: