Main Article Content

Ivelina Vasileva Lutsian Krastev Anton Minchev Slavov Nadezhda Petkova Nikoleta Yantcheva Nenko Nenov Atanas Krachmarov Antonia Atanasova


Chocolate industry generates yearly large quantities of cacao wastes. These by-products pose to the manufacturers’ difficulties for disposal and represent also valuable sources of substances: polysaccharides, polyphenols, etc. The aim of the present work was to characterize cacao waste and search for possible food applications. The waste was investigated for total polyphenol content (5.86±0.39 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW)), flavonoids (0.77±0.02 mg QE/g DW), total dietary fibers (63.58±1.25% DW), proteins (15.80±0.11% DW), and hexane-soluble substances (13.39±0.08% DW). The antioxidant activity, evaluated by DPPH and FRAP (82.82±1.72 and 31.13±0.70 mM TE/g DW waste, respectively) suggested that cacao waste had potential as antioxidant supplement. The most abundant essential amino acids were lysine, tyrosine and phenylalanine: 8.55±0.19, 7.32±0.13 and 6.32±0.11 g/100g protein, respectively. Extraction with water, 50% and 96% ethanol was performed and it was found that the highest amount of polyphenols (and hence higher antioxidant activity) was extracted with 50% ethanol.The results from the analysis suggested that the cacao waste was a rich source of valuable substances and on that basis liqueurs with substituted cacao powder and waste Rosa damascena were prepared. The test panel suggested that the cacao husks were a promising constituent for low-alcoholic beverages.

Article Details


Aronal A.P., Huda N., Ahmad R. Amino acid and fatty acid profiles of peking and muscovy duck meat. International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(3): 229-236.

Balev D., Vlahova-Vangelova D., Mihalev K., Shikov V., Dragoev S., Nikolov V. Application of natural dietary antioxidants in broiler feeds. Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans, 2015, 18(2): 224-232.

Eren E., Gok E.F., Seyhan B.N., Maslakci N.N., Oksuz A.U. Evaluation of anthocyanin, a rose residue extract, for use in dye-sensitized solar cell. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 27(10): 3745-3748.

Kalvatchev Z., Garzaro D., Cedezo F.G. Theobroma cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud. Agroalimentaria, 1998, 6: 23-25.

Kivrak I., Duru M., Öztürk M., Mercan N., Harmandar M., Topçu G. Antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial constituents from the essential oil and ethanol extract of Salvia potentillifolia. Food Chemistry, 2009 116: 470-479.

Manzano P., Hernández J., Quijano-Avilés M., Barragán A., Chóez-Guaranda I., Viteri R., Valle O. Polyphenols extracted from Theobroma cacao waste and its utility as antioxidant. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 2017, 29(1): 45-50.

Nair K.P.P. The agronomy and economy of important tree crops of the developing world (First Edition). Elsevier, Burlington, MA, USA, 2010, pp. 131-179, Print ISBN: 978-0-12-384677-8.

Nambuthiri E.S., Shivshankar S. Cacao waste and its utilization. Indian Cacao, Arecanut and Spices Journal, 1987, 8: 78-80.

Petkova N., Petrova I., Ivanov I., Mihov R., Hadjikinova R., Ognyanov M., Nikolova V. Nutritional and antioxidant potential of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) flour and evaluation of functional properties of its polysaccharide fraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2017, 9(10): 2189-2195.

Rabbani D., Mahmoudkashi N., Mehdizad F. COD and color removal from textile wastewater using Rosa damascena watering waste ash. International Archives of Health Sciences, 2015, 2(1): 19-24.

Rabbani D., Mahmoudkashi N., Mehdizad F., Shaterian M. Green approach to wastewater treatment by application of Rosa damascena waste as nano-biosorbent. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2016, 9: 121-130.

Sampath S.R., Kumar M.N.A., Sundareshan K. Evaluation of cacao bean by-products for ruminant feeding. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 1990, 7(1): 45-48.

Singleton V.L., Rossi J.A.J. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1965, 16: 144-158.

Slavov A., Kyiohara H., Yamada H. Immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides from waste rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2013, 59: 192-200.

Slavov A., Denev P., Panchev I., Shikov V., Nenov N., Yantcheva N., Vasileva I. Combined recovery of polysaccharides and polyphenols from Rosa damascena wastes. Industrial Crops and Products, 2017, 100: 85-94.

Slavov A., Vasileva I., Nenov N., Stefanov L., Shikov V., Mihalev K., Stoyanova A. Wastes from the rose oil industry – approaches for valorization and recycling. Information Bulletin of the Bulgarian National Association „Essential Oils, Perfumery and Cosmetics“, 2018, 76: 39-45. ISSN 2367-7996.

Stefanov L. Obtaining and analysis of extractive aroma products from waste rose flowers (Rosa х damascena Mill.). PhD Thesis, University of Food Technologies, 2016.

Valadez-Carmona L., Ortiz-Moreno A., Ceballos-Reyes G., Mendiola J. A., Ibáñez E., Valorization of cacao pod husk through supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds, The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 2018, 131: 99-105.

Voight J. Chocolate and cacao aroma. Chapter 7.In: Chocolate in Health and Nutrition (R. R. Watson, V. R. Preedy, S. Zibadi Eds.). Humana Press, Springer Science+Business Media. 2012. pp. 89-101, Print ISBN: 978-1-61779-802-3, eBook ISBN: 978-1-61779-803-0.

How to Cite
VASILEVA, Ivelina et al. Valorization of cocoa and rose waste for preparation of liqueurs. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 1, p. 8-17, mar. 2019. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 18 may 2024. doi: