Main Article Content

Vladimir Dimche Kitanovski Dessislava Borislavova Vlahova-Vangelova Stefan Georgiev Dragoev Hristo Nikolov Nikolov Desislav Kostadinov Balev


The sensory, physicochemical and microbiological properties of electrochemically activated anolyte and flake ice chilled rainbow trout (Oncorcynchus mykiss) packed in low-density polyethylene/polyamide bags were studied during storage for 20 days at 0-4°C. Significant reduction of the sensory assessed scores was found. The fish treated with ECA was assessed as satisfactory fresh to 15 days of storage. On this day, their sensory scores of the state of the eyes were higher (p* < 0.05) with 27.78%, skin appearance with 22.22% and taste of grilled trout with 18.75% respectively in comparison with flack ice chilled fish. After 20 days of storage the electrochemically activated anolyte treated rainbow trout characterised by 4.38% lower pH, 20.00% lower free fatty acids, 9.22 % lower peroxide value, 17.65% lower TBARS, 5.85% lower free α-Amino nitrogen, 19.66% lower total volatile based-nitrogen, 4.28% lower total viable counts on the skin and 2.90% in the muscle tissue, and 2.82% lower psychrotrophic count on the skin and 2.86% in the muscle tissue.
The conclusion was made that the chilling of the rainbow trout with electrochemically activated ‎anolyte could contribute to prolong the shelf life by maintaining satisfactory organoleptic and ‎physicochemical properties to the 15th day at 0-4 °C.

Article Details


Abernathy D.G., Spedding G., Starcher B. Analysis of protein and total usable nitrogen in beer and wine using a microwell ninhydrin assay. Journal of the Institute of Brewaring, 2009, 115(2): 122-127.

Arashisar Ş., Hisar O., Kaya M., Yanik T. Effects of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on microbiological and chemical properties of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2004, 97(2): 209-214.

Archer M. Sensory Assessment Scoresheets for Fish and Shellfish - Torry & QIM (First Edition). Seafish, Edinburgh. 2010, 58 pages.

Atrea I., Papavergou A., Amvrosiadis I., Savvaidis I.N. Combined effect of vacuum-packaging and oregano essential oil on the shelf-life of Mediterranean octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Aegean Sea stored at 4°C. Food Microbiology, 2009, 26(2): 166-172.

Bakhir V.M. Electrochemical activation: a key to ecologically pure technologies of water treatment (First Edition). Delfin Aqua Ltd, Moscow. 2005, 15 pages.

Bakhir V. M., Zadorozhny J.G., Barabash T. Apparatus for electrochemical treatment of water and/or water solutions. US Patent 5628888 A, 1997.

Barthet V.J., Gordon V., Daun J.K. Evaluation of a colorimetric method for measuring the content of FFA in marine and vegetable oils. Food Chemistry, 2008, 111(4): 1064-1068.

Botsoglou N.A., Fletouris D.J., Papageorgiou G. E., Vassilopoulos V.N., Mantis A.J., Trakatellis A.G. Rapid, sensitive and specific thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid peroxidation in animal tissue, food and feeds samples. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 1994, 42(9): 1931-1937.

Christian J.H.B., Roberts, T.A. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Microorganisms in foods. 2, sampling for microbiological analysis: principles and specific applications (Second Edition). University of Toronto Publisher. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. 1986, 448 pages. ISBN-10: 0802056938, ISBN-13: 978-0802056931

Chytiri S., Chouliara I., Savvaidis I.N., Kontominas M.G. Microbiological, chemical and sensory assessment of iced whole and filleted aquacultured rainbow trout. Food Microbiology, 2004, 21(2): 157-165.

Cloete T.E., Thantsha M.S., Maluleke M.R., Kirkpatrick R. The antimicrobial mechanism of electrochemically activated water against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2009, 107(2): 379-384.

Commission Decision 95/149/EC of 8 March 1995 fixing the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) limit values for certain categories of fishery products and specifying the analysis methods to be used. OJ: JOL_1995_097_R_ 0084_01.CELEX: 31995D0149.

Cousin B., Cinti S., Morroni M., Raimbault S., Ricquier D., Penicaud L., Casteilla L. Occurrence of brown adipocytes in rat white adipose tissue: molecular and morphological characterization. Journal of Cell Science, 1992, 103(4): 931-942.

Dragoev S.G., Balev D.K., Ivanov G.Y., Nikolova-Damyanova B.M., Grozdeva T.G., Filizov E.H., Vassilev K.P. Effect of superficial treatment with new natural antioxidant on salmon (Salmo salar) lipid oxidation. Acta Alimentaria, 2014, 43(1): 1-8.

Duan J., Jiang Y., Cherian G., Zhao Y. Effect of combined chitosan-krill oil coating and modified atmosphere packaging on the storability of cold-stored lingcod (Ophiodon elongates) fillets. Food Chemistry, 2010, 122(4): 1035-1042.

Frangos L., Pyrgotou N., Giatrakou V., Ntzimani A., Savvaidis I.N. Combined effects of salting, oregano oil and vacuum-packaging on the shelf-life of refrigerated trout fillets. Food Microbiology, 2010, 27(1): 115-121.

Ghebremichael K., Muchelemba E., Petrusevski B., Amy G. Electrochemically activated water as an alternative to chlorine for decentralized disinfection. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua, 2011, 60(4): 210-218.

Gheisari H.R. Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Veterinary World, 2011, 4(4): 153-157

Gelabert J., Gou P., Guerrero L., Arnau J. Effect of sodium chloride replacement on some characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Science, 2003, 65(2): 833-839.

Giménez B., Roncalés P., Beltrán J.A. Modified atmosphere packaging of filleted rainbow trout. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2002, 82(10): 1054-1059.

Goulas A.E., Kontominas M.G. Effect of salting and smoking method on the keeping quality of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): biochemical and sensory attributes. Food Chemistry, 2005, 93(3): 511-520.

Hornero-Méndez D., Pérez-Gálvez A., Mínguez-Mosquera M.I. A rapid spectrophotometric method for the determi-nation of peroxide value in food lipids with high carotenoid content. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2001, 78(11): 1151-1155.

Huang Y.R., Hung Y.C., Hsu S.Y., Huang Y.W., Hwang D.-F. Application of electrolyzed water in the food industry. Food Control, 2008, 19(4): 329-345.

Jebelli Javan A., Ghazvinian K., Mahdavi A., Vayeghan A.J., Staji H., Khaligh S.G. The effect of dietary Zataria multi-flora Boiss. Essential oil supplementation on microbial growth and lipid peroxidation of broiler breast fillets during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2012, 37(5): 881-888.

Korkeala H., Mäki-Petäys O., Alanko T., Sorvettula O. Deter-mination of pH in meat. Meat Science, 1986, 18 (2): 121-132.

Latimer G.W. Jr. Chapter 41. AOAC, Official Method 940.28. 2012. In: Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Nineteenth Edition). AOAC International, Rockville, MD, 2012, рр. 121, Print ISBN: 0-935584-83-8. Liao L.B., Chen W.M., Xiao X.M. The generation and inactivation mechanism of oxidation-reduction potential of electrolyzed oxidizing water. Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, 78(4): 1326-1332.

Magnussen O.M., Haugland A., Hemmingsen A.K.T., Johansen S., Nordtvedt T.S. Advances in super chilling of food - Process characteristics and product quality. Review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 2008, 19(8): 418-424.

Özoğul F., Özoğul Y. Comparison of methods used for determination of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 2000, 24(1): 113-120.

Özogul Y., Özyurt G., Özogul F., Kuley E., Polat A. Freshness assessment of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) by sensory, chemical and microbiological methods. Food Chemistry, 2005, 92(4): 745-751.

Park H., Hung Y.-C., Chung D. Effects of chlorine and pH on efficacy of electrolyzed water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2004, 91(1): 13-18.

Peters T.J., O'Connell M.J., Ward R.J. Role of Free-Radical Mediated Lipid Peroxidation in the Pathogenesis of Hepatic Damage by Lysosomal Disruption. In: Free Radical in Liver Injury (G. Poli, K.H. Cheeseman, M.U. Dianzani, T.F. Slater Eds). Proceedings of the International Meeting held in Turin; 1985 June 27-29, IRL Press, Washington, DC/Oxford, 1985, pp. 107-115. Print ISBN: 0947946241 (pbk.)

Rezaei M., Montazeri N., Langrudi H.E., Mokhayer B., Parviz M., Nazarinia A. The biogenic amines and bacterial changes of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stored in ice. Food Chemistry, 2007, 103(1): 150-154.

Rodríguez Ó., Barros-Velázquez J., Piñeiro C., Gallardo J.M., Aubourg S.P. Effects of storage in slurry ice on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality and on the shelf-life of farmed turbot (Psetta maxima). Food Chemistry, 2006, 95(2): 270-278.

Scott A. Electrochemically activated water. Chemistry Review, 2004, 13(3): 20-21.

Szwarc-Rzepka K., Ciesielczyk F., Jesionowski T. Preparation and physicochemical properties of functionalized silica/ octamethacryl-silsesquioxane hybrid systems. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2013, Article ID 674237, 15 pages

Thorn R.M.S., Lee S.W.H., Robinson G.M., Greenman J., Reynolds D.M. Electrochemically activated solutions: evidence for antimicrobial efficacy and applications in healthcare environments. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 2012, 31(5): 641-653.

Unnevehr L.J. Food safety issues and fresh food product exports from LDCs. Agriculture Economics, 2000, 23(3): 231-240.

Verbeke W., Vermeir I., Brunsø K. Consumer evaluation of fish quality as basis for fish market segmentation. Food Quality and Preference, 2007, 18(4): 651-661.

Viji P., Binsi P.K., Visnuvinayagam S., Srinivasa Gopal T.K. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf-life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015, 52(10): 6278-6289.

Whittle K.J., Hardy R., Hobbs G. Chilled fish and fish products. In: Chilled Foods. The State of the Art (T.R. Gormley Ed.). Elsevier Applied Science, Essex, England. 1990, рр. 87–116, Print ISBN-10 1851664793; Print ISBN-13 978-1851664795,

Worknen T.S., Osthoff G., Pretorius J.C., Hugo C.J. Comparison of anolyte and chlorinated water as a disinfecting dipping treatment for stored carrots. Journal of Food Quality, 2003, 26(6): 463-474.

How to Cite
KITANOVSKI, Vladimir Dimche et al. Effect of electrochemically activated anolyte on the shelf life of cold stored rainbow trout. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 1, p. 1-10, mar. 2018. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 apr. 2018. doi: