Main Article Content
The main objective of this study was to determine the changes in the rheological characteristics of the flour produced by the industry mill Buhler AG 600 ton/day through adding big particles of flour, semolina, and fine bran (FB) to the produced flour. The study was conducted on mixed wheat grains (80% Iraqi wheat and 20% American Red wheat). After changing the directions of some pipes in the milling section, the flours were tested, and the effect of having bigger particles in the product was measured. The results showed that the flour extraction rate, moisture content, ash, and protein were increased as the flour particle size was increased. Farinograph results explained a clear effect of big particles and fine bran on increasing the water absorption, however, the dough stability was decreased mostly insignificantly. Extensiograph results showed that there was no big difference between the control flour and other produced flour. Therefore, the changes of the mill pipes could increase the flour extraction rate and reduce the pressure on the mill rolls without significant differences in the rheological properties of the produced flour.
Al-Dmoor, H.M. Cake flour: functionality and quality. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 2013, 9(3): 166-180.
Alhendi, A.S., Ahmed, T.H., Albayati, W.S., Almukhtar, B.Q., Ali. Z.K., and Al-Hayani, N.K. Comparisons between flour quality produced from three different mills: buhler, quadrumat, and industry mills. International Journal of Food Studies, (In press).
Alhendi, A.S., Almukhtar, B.Q., and Al-haddad, F.M. Changes in flour quality of four iraqi wheat varieties during storage. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 2019, 42 (1): 15 – 25.
Anjum, F.M., Khan, M.R., Din, A., Saeed, M., Pasha, I. and Arshad, M.U. Wheat gluten: high molecular weight glutenin subunits—structure, genetics, and relation to dough elasticity. Journal of Food Science, 2007, 72(3): 56-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00292.x
Azizi, M.H., SEYEDIN, S., and Peyghambardoust, S.H. Effect of flour extraction rate on flour composition, dough rheological characteristics and quality of flatbread. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2006, 8, 323-330.
Edwards, M.A., Osborne, B.G. and Henry, R.J. Investigation of the Effect of Conditioning on the Fracture of Hard and Soft Wheat Grain by the Single-Kernel Characterization System: A Comparison with Roller Milling. Journal of Cereal Science, 2007, 46(1): 64-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2006.12.001
Faměra, O., Hrušková, M. and Novotna, D. Evaluation of Methods for Wheat Grain Hardness Determination. Plant, Soil and Environment, 2004, 50: 489-493.
Fišteš, A.Z. and Vukmirović, Đ.M. Reduction of Wheat Middlings Using a Conventional and Eight-Roller Milling Systems. Acta Periodica Technologica, 2009, 40: 25-34. https://doi.org/10.2298/APT0940025F
Hareland, G.A. Evaluation of flour particle size distribution by laser diffraction, sieve analysis and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of Cereal Science, 1994, 20(2):183-190. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.1994.1058
Joye, I.J., Lagrain, B. and Delcour, J.A. Endogenous Redox Agents and Enzymes that Affect Protein Network Formation During Bread Making-A review. Journal of Cereal Science, 2009, 50(1): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2009.04.002
Krasileva, K.V., Vasquez-Gross, H.A., Howell, T., Bailey, P., Paraiso, F., Clissold, L., Simmonds, J., Ramirez-Gonzalez, R.H., Wang, X., Borrill, P. and Fosker, C. Uncovering Hidden Variation in Polyploid Wheat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017, 114(6): 913-921. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619268114
Lineback, D.R., Rasper, V.F. Wheat carbohydrates. In: Pomeranz, Y. (Ed.) Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, third ed, vol. 1. AACC, St Paul, 1988, 277-372.
Popper, L., Schäfer, W. and Freund, W. Future of flour: A compendium of flour improvement, 2006, Agrimedia.
Ral, J.P., Whan, A., Larroque, O., Leyne, E., Pritchard, J., Dielen, A.S., Newberry, M. Engineering high α‐amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 2016,14(1): 364-376. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12390
Ramírez‐Wong,B., Walker, C.E., Ledesma‐Osuna, A.I., Torres, P. I., Medina‐Rodríguez, C.L., López‐Ahumada, G.A., Salazar-Garcia, M.G., Ortega-Ramirez, R., Jonson, A.M., & Flores, R. A. Effect of flour extraction rate on white and red winter wheat flour compositions and tortilla texture. Cereal chemistry, 2007, 84(3): 207-213. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-3-0207
Rani, K.U., Prasada Rao U.J.S., Leelavathi K., and Haridas Rao, P. Distribution of enzymes in wheat flour mill streams. Journal of Cereal Science, 2001, 34(3): 233-242 https://doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.2000.0393
Sakhare, S.D. and Inamdar, A.A. The Cumulative Ash Curve: A Best Tool to Evaluate Complete Mill Performance. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014, 51(4): 795-799. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0549-z
Sonaye, S.Y. and Baxi, R.N. Particle Size Measurement and Analysis of flour. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2012, 2(3): 1839-1824.
Steglich, T., Bernin, D., Moldin, A., Topgaard, D. and Langton, M. Bran Particle Size Influence on Pasta Microstructure, Water Distribution, and Sensory Properties. Cereal Chemistry, 2015, 92(6): 617-623. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-03-15-0038-R
Wang, N., Hou, G.G., Kweon, M. and Lee, B. Effects of Particle Size on the Properties of Whole-Grain Soft Wheat Flour and Its Cracker Baking Performance. Journal of Cereal Science, 2016, 69: 187-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.03.010
Wieser, H., Koehler, P. and Konitzer, K. Celiac Disease and Gluten: Multidisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities (1st ed.), Academic Press Elsevier, London, Waltham, San Diego, 2014, 53-75.
Wilcox, R. A., Deyoe, C. W., & Pfost, H. B. A method for determining and expressing the size of feed particles by sieving. Poultry Science, 1970, 49(1), 9-13. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0490009
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Licensing Agency
Institutions based in the EU with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Licensing Agency may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Copyright Clearance Center
Institutions based in the US with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Clearance Center may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Other Territories: Please contact your local reproduction rights organization.
If you have any questions about the permitted uses of a specific article, please contact us.
Permissions Department of Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv
Plovdiv 4002, 26 Maritsa Blvd., Bulgaria
Tel.: +359 (32) 603-802
Fax: +359 (32) 644-102