Main Article Content

Denka Zlateva Mimi Petrova Dana Stefanova

Abstract

It has been found that nutrition does not provide the necessary quantities of some important trace elements, including iron and zinc.


Iron is an essential element for all living organisms. It has a key role in the transport of oxygen and as a cofactor in many enzymes.


Zinc is a component of more than 200 enzymes involved in the synthesis of proteins and DNA and is needed for the metabolism of growth factors. Enriching bread with mineral substances is a very good approach to overcoming the deficit and achieving adequate levels of intake. Different sources are used for this purpose, but there has been a growing interest in seaweed in recent years.


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of 2 and 4% Spirulina powder supplement on the iron and zinc content of bread made from wheat flour type 500.


To determine the iron and zinc content, a highly sensitive ICP-AES method is used. Enrichment with 2% and 4% Spirulina plantesis has been found to increase the amount of zinc in wheat bread respectively to 6.36 ± 0.64 mg/kg and 6.77 ± 0.68 mg/kg, whereas its content in the control sample is 5.99 ± 0.49 mg/kg. The amount of iron in the enriched samples reached 15.9 ± 1.59 mg/kg with the addition of 2% Spirulina plantensis and 24.7 ± 2.48 mg/kg with the addition of 4%, while in the control sample of bread was 7.22 ± 0.58 mg/kg.


Practical applications
The addition of Spirulina platensis algae to wheat bread increases its biological value and helps to achieve iron and zinc content amounts close to the recommended daily intake levels.

Article Details

References

Ajeesh M, Bohra CPN, Gupta N, Rajasekaran C. Spirulina as 'functional food'. New Biotechnol, 2009, 25:S285.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2009.06.644

Barakat E., Nemaat M., El-Kewaisny, Salama A. Chemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Fortified Biscuits with Dried Spirulina Algae. Food and Dairy Sci., Mansoura Univ ,2016, 7 (3): 167–77. www.journalijar.com/uploads/387_IJAR-18106.pdf

Belay A. The Potential Application of Spirulina (Arthrospira) as a Nutritional and Therapeutic Supplement in Health Management. The Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association, 2002, 5(2), pp. 27-48. http://www.macoc.fr/resources/The+Journal+of+the+American+Nutraceutical+ Association+vol+5+spring+2002+Spiruline.pdf

Burcu A., Avşaroğlu E., Işık O., Özyurt G., Kafkas E., Etyemez M., Uslu L. Nutritional and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bread Enriched with Microalgae Spirulina Platensis. Journal of Engineering Research and Application, 2016, 6(124): 2248–962230. http://www.ijera.com/papers/Vol6_issue12/Part-4/E612043038.pdf

Cabrita A, Maia, M. R. G, Oliveira, H. M, Sousa-Pinto, I., Almeida, A. A, Pinto, E., & Fonseca, A. J. M. Tracing seaweeds as mineral sources for farm-animals. Journal of applied phycology, 2016, 28(5), 3135-3150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-016-0839-y

Demirözü B., Saldamlı I., Gürsela B., Uçak A., Çetınyokuş F., Yüzbaşıa N. Determination of Some Metals Which Are Important for Food Quality Control in Bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 2003, 37(2): 171–77. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.2002.0491

Ebuehi, O., Owolabi O., Ikanone C., Amabibi I., Ajekwu A. Organoleptic, Minerals and Vitamins’ Evaluation of Some Nigerian Breads, Nigerian Food Journal, 2007, 25(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nifoj.v25i2.50846

Fradique M, Batista AP, Nunes MC, Gouveia L, Bandarra NM, Raymundo A. Incorporation of Chlorella Vulgaris and Spirulina Maxima Biomass in Pasta Products. Part 1: Preparation and Evaluation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2010, 90(10): 1656–64. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3999

Gandy J., Madden A., Holdsworth M. Oxford Handbook of Nutrition and Dietetics. Oxford University Press, 2012, Print ISBN-13: 9780199585823 https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199585823.001.0001

García-Casal M, Pereira A, Leets I, Ramírez J, Quiroga M. High Iron Content and Bioavailability in Humans from Four Species of Marine Algae. The Journal of Nutrition, 2007, 137(12): 2691–95.https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.12.2691

García-Casal M., Ramírez J., Leets I., Pereira A., Quiroga M. 2009. Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Content and Iron Bioavailability from Algae (Ulva Sp., Sargassum Sp. and Porphyra Sp.) in Human Subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 101(01): https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508994757

Gibson R. Zinc: The Missing Link in Combating Micronutrient Malnutrition in Developing Countries. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2006, 65(1): 51–60. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS2005474

Habib M., Parvin M., Huntington T., Hasan M. A review on culture, production and use of spirulina as food for humans and feeds for domestic animals. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1034. Rome, FAO. 2008. 33p. ISBNs 9789251061060, www.fao.org/3/a-i0424e.pdf

Joshi, S., Bera M. and Panesar P. Extrusion Cooking of Maize/Spirulina Mixture. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2014, 38: 655-664. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12015

McLean E., Cogswell M., Egli I., Wojdyla D. Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993–2005. Public Health Nutrition, 2009, 12(04): 444. 3).https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980008002401

Minh N. Effect of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Spirulina and Preservative Supplementation to Sweet Bread Quality in Bakery. International journal of multidisciplinary research and development, 2014, 1(4): 36–44. http://www.allsubjectjournal.com/archives/2014/vol1/issue4/70

Mohammed S., MussaliI A., Mohsen A., Gahri A. Nutritive Value of Commonly Consumed Bread in Yemen. E-Journal of Chemistry, 2009, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 437-444. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/975960.

Prasad S. Impact of the Discovery of Human Zinc Deficiency on Health. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 2014, 28(4): 357–63.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.09.002

Saharan V. and Jood S. Nutritional Composition of Spirulina Platensis Powder and its Acceptability in Food Products. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2017, 5(6): 2295–2300.http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/4671

Salgueiro M., Zubillaga M., Lysionek A., Caro R., Weill R., Boccio J. The Role of Zinc in the Growth and Development of Children. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.,) 2002, 18(6): 510–19.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(01)00812-7

Tokuşoglu, O., and Unal M. Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina Platensis, Chlorella Vulgaris, and Isochrisis Galbana. Journal of Food Science, 2003, 68(4): 1144–48.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb09615.x

Vonshak A. Spirulina Platensis (Arthrospira) : Physiology, Cell-Biology, and Biotechnology. CRC Press, 1997, p.223, ISBN 9781482272970 www.bashanfoundation.org/contributions/Vonshak-A/1997-.Vonshak-S.pdf

Wolfgang M. and Sandstead H. Zinc Requirements and the Risks and Benefits of Zinc Supplementation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 20(1): 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2006.01.006

How to Cite
ZLATEVA, Denka; PETROVA, Mimi; STEFANOVA, Dana. Influence of Spirulina Platensis on the content of iron and zinc in wheat bread. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 159-165, oct. 2019. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <https://www.ijfsab.com/index.php/fsab/article/view/55>. Date accessed: 12 nov. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2019.v2.i2.55.