Main Article Content

Gergana Ilieva Marovska Ivanka Hambarliyska Nadezhda Petkova Ivan Ivanov Vasil Georgiev Mariyana Topuzova Anton Slavov


The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare three types of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) biomasses for their content of biologically active substances and potential application. The first one was from unprocessed lavender (L-UNTR22_Z) and the other two were industrial steam-distilled lavender solid residues (L-SD22_Z and L-SD22_M). Ash, protein, polyuronide content and the degree of esterification of the pectic substances in the biomass were investigated. 70% ethanolic extracts of the residues were prepared and their total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were evaluated by four methods. Individual phenolic acids, flavonoids, polar non-volatile compounds and polar volatile compounds were also determined by chromatographic analyses. The highest degree of esterification (83.9±0.5%) and protein content (8.15±1.6%) were found in L-SD22_Z extract. L-SD22_M extract demonstrated the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Six phenolic acids (protocatehuic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, salicylic, and gallic acid) and five flavonoids ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, hesperidin, and quercetin) were detected by HPLC analyses. The detail information about amino acids, sugars, organic and phenolic acids, as well as polar volatile compounds was obtained by GC-MS. The results suggested that the lavender (untreated and residual biomass) are a good source of dietary antioxidants and compounds with potent biological activity.

Article Details


Angelova G., Brazkova M., Stefanova P., Blazheva D., Vladev V., Petkova N., Slavov A., Denev P., Karashanova D., Zaharieva R., Enev A., Krastanov A. Waste rose flower and lavender straw biomass – An innovative lignocellulose feedstock for mycelium bio-materials development using newly isolated Ganoderma resinaceum GA1M. Journal of Fungi, 2021, 7(10): 866.

AOAC Official Method 976.06. Protein (crude) in animal feed and pet food. Semiautomated method. Geithersburg, MD, USA, AOAC International, 2016.

Dong G., Bai X., Aimila A., Aisa H. A., Maiwulanjiang M. Study on lavender essential oil chemical compositions by GC-MS and improved pGC. Molecules, 2020, 25(14): 3166.

Jirovetz L., Buchbauer G., Stoilova I., Stoyanova A., Krastanov A., Schmidt E. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006, 54(17): 6303-6307.

Lazarova Y., Dodevska T., Slavov A., Karashanova D., Georgieva B. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles: electrochemical application. Bulgarian Chemical Communications, 2019, 51(Special Issue D): 192-197

Li A.N., Li S., Li H.B., Xu D.P., Xu X.R., Chen F. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of 51 edible and wild flowers. Journal of Functional Food, 2014, 6(1): 319-330.

Marovska G., Vasileva I., Petkova N., Ognyanov M., Gandova V., Stoyanova A., Merdzhanov P., Simitchiev A., Slavov A. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) industrial by-products as a source of polysaccharides. Industrial Crops and Products, 2022a, 188(1-3): 115678 .

Marovska G.I., Vasileva I.N., Aggelidou A., Yantcheva N. S., Slavov A. M. Physico-chemical characteristics of polysaccharides isolated from lavender by-products. Bulgarian Chemical Communications, 2022b, 54(1): 81–86. Available at:

Marovska G.I., Hambarliyska I.P., Petkova N.T., Ivanov I.G., Vasileva I.N., Slavov A.M. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts obtained from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.). Philippine Journal of Science, 2023, 152(3): 861-870.

Nurcholis W., Putri D.N.S.B., Husnawati H., Aisyah S. I., Priosoeryanto B.P. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from accessions of Amomum compactum fruits. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 2021, 66(1): 58-62.

Owens H.S., McCready R.M., Shepherd A.D., Schultz T. H., Pippen E.L., Swenson H.A., Miers J.C., Erlandsen R.F., Maclay W. D. Methods used at western regional research laboratory for extraction and analysis of pectic materials, A.1.C. Western Regional Research Laboratory, Albany, Calif, United States Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, 1952.

Petrova I., Petkova N., Ivanov I. Five edible flowers - Valuable source of antioxidants in human nutrition. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 2016, 8(4): 604-610. Available at:,Vol8,Issue4,Article8.pdf

Popova V., Mazova N., Ivanova T., Petkova N., Stoyanova M., Stoyanova A., Ercisli S., Assouguem A., Kara M., Alshawwa S. Z., Al Kamaly O. Phytonutrient composition of two phenotypes of Physalis alkekengi L. fruit. Horticulturae, 2022, 8(5): 373.

Slavov A., Karneva K., Vasileva I., Denev P., Denkova R., Shikov V., Manolova M., Lazarova Y., Ivanova V. Valorization of lavender waste – obtaining and characteristics of polyphenol rich extracts. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, 2018, 1(1): 11-18.

Tabata J., Teshiba M., Shimizu N., Sugie H. Mealybug mating disruption by a sex pheromone derived from lavender essential oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 2015, 27(3): 232-237.

Upson T. The taxonomy of the genus Lavandula L. In: Lavender. The Genus Lavandula (M. Lis-Balchin Ed). Taylor & Francis, London. 2002, pp. 2-86. eBook ISBN: 9780429218590. Available at:

Vasileva I., Denkova R., Chochkov R., Teneva D., Denkova Z., Dessev T., Denev P., Slavov A. Effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa officinalis) waste on quality and shelf life of bread. Food Chemistry, 2018, 253(7): 13-21.

Vrancheva R., Ivanov I., Dincheva I., Badjakov I., Pavlov A. Triterpenoids and other non-polar compounds in leaves of wild and cultivated Vaccinium species. Plants, 2021, 10(1): 94.

How to Cite
MAROVSKA, Gergana Ilieva et al. General characteristics of lavender biomass (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) before and after industrial distillation. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 1, p. 133-144, mar. 2024. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 june 2024. doi: