Main Article Content

Florence Abolaji Bello Unyime D. Esin

Abstract




A study was conducted to improve yellow maize flour through the addition of cowpea and coconut pomace flour blends. The flours were optimized using the optimal mixture design of response surface methodology and functional properties were determined. The bulk density, swelling, water absorption, and oil absorption capacity were all significantly (p < 0.05) different. Run 1 (75% maize flour, 23.75% cowpea flour, and 1.25% coconut pomace flour), Run 2 (95% maize flour and 5% cowpea flour), Run 7 (70% maize flour and 30% cowpea flour) and Run 8 (90% maize flour, 5% cowpea flour and 5% coconut pomace flour) were selected as best overall functional properties. The selected flour blends were assessed for proximate composition, antioxidant properties, and pasting properties. Cowpea flour significantly (p < 0.05) increased crude protein content, while coconut pomace flour enhanced ash, crude fat, fiber, and energy content. The antioxidant and pasting properties showed Runs 2 and 8 with improved DPPH value and pasting properties. These flour blends might be suitable for developing complementary foods and ready-to-eat foods due to their low pasting properties.





Article Details

References

Abbey B.W., Ibeh G.O. Functional properties of raw and heat processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour. Journal of Food Science, 1988, 53(6): 1775-1777. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb07840.x

Adegunwa M.O., Adeniyi O.D., Adebowale A.A., Bakare H.A. Quality evaluation of kokoro produced from maize-pigeon pea flour blends. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 2015, 13(3): 200-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2015.1015665

Aderonke A.M., Fashakin J.B., Ibironke S.I. Determination of mineral contents, proximate composition, and functional properties of complementary diets prepared from maize, soybean and pigeon pea. American Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, 2014, 1(3): 53-56. https://doi.org/10.12966/ajnfs.07.01.2014

Adeyeye S.A.O., Adebayo-Oyetoro A.O., Omoniyi S.A. Quality and sensory properties of maize flour cookies enriched with soy protein isolate. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2017, 3(1): 1278827. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2017.1278827

Ajatta M.A., Akinola S.A., Osundahunsi O.F. Proximate, functional and pasting properties of composite flours made from wheat, breadfruit and cassava starch. Applied Tropical Agriculture, 2016, 21(3): 158-165. Available at: https://journals.futa.edu.ng/home/paperd/98/5/11

Akaffou F.A., Koffi D.M., Cisse M., Niamké S.L. Physicochemical and functional properties of flours from three purple maize varieties named “Violet de Katiola” in Côte d’Ivoire. Asian Food Science Journal, 2018, 4(4): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/AFSJ/2018/44034

Akubor P.I. Influence of germination and fermentation on the qualities of bread prepared from cowpea and wheat flour blends. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences, 2008, 29(2): 156-162.

AOAC. In Official Methods of Analysis. 18th edn Association Official Analytical Chemist, Inc. Washington DC., USA. 2005.

Asif-UI-Alam S.M., Islam M.M.Z., Hoque M.M., Monalis K. Effect of drying on the physicochemical and functional properties of green banana (Musa sapientum) flour and development of baked product. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014, 2(4): 128-133. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajfst-2-4-4

Awolu O.O. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour. Heliyon, 2017, 3(2): e00240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00240

Awolu O.O., Olarewaju O.A., Akinade A. Effect of the addition of pearl millet flour subjected to different processing on the antioxidants, nutritional, pasting characteristics and cookies quality of rice-based composite flour. Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Engineering, 2017, 7(2): 247-256. https://doi.org/10.15406/jnhfe.2017.07.00232

Bassey F.I., Mcwatters K.H., Edem C.A., Iwegbue C.M.A. Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut. Food Science and Nutrition, 2013, 1(5): 384-391. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.51

Bello F.A., Oluwalana I.B. Impact of modified atmosphere packaging on nutritive values and sensory qualities of fresh maize (Zea mays L.) under tropical ambient storage condition. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 2017, 6(1): 19-24. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20170601.14

Bello F.A., Oyeniyi A.O., George I.O. Chemical and functional properties of wheat, pigeon pea and plantain composite flour. European Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2019, 7(4): 1-8. Available at: https://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Chemical-and-Functional-Properties-of-Wheat-Pigeon-Pea-and-Plantain-Composite-Flour.pdf

Bello F.A., Udo J.A. Effect of processing methods on the nutritional composition and functional properties of flours from white and yellow maize varieties. Journal of Advances in Food Science and Technology, 2018, 5(1): 1-7. Available at: https://ikprress.org/index.php/JAFSAT/article/view/3730

Bello F.A., Bassey V.I., Edet M.O. Optimization of cassava, mungbean and coconut pomace flour levels in the production of fiber-rich cookies using response surface methodology. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 2021, 20(6): 1871147. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2020.1871147

Bojňanská T., Frančáková H., Líšková M., Tokár M. Legumes – the alternative raw materials for bread production. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 2012, 1(Spesial Issue): 876-886. Available at: https://office2.jmbfs.org/index.php/JMBFS/article/view/7380/1603

Boukar O, Belko N, Chamarthi S, Togola A., Batieno J., Owusu E., Haruna M., Diallo S., Umar M.L., Olufajo O., Fatokun C. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): Genetics, genomics and breeding. Plant Breed, 2019, 138(4): 415-424. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbr.12589

Chaparro Acuna S.P., Gil Gonzalez J.H., Aristizabal Torres I.D. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana) and soybean (Glycine max). Food Science and Technology [Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], 2012, 32(1): 98-105. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612012005000007

Dankwa R., Aisala H., Kayitesi E., de Kock H.L. The sensory profiles of flatbreads made from sorghum, cassava, and cowpea flour used as wheat flour alternatives. Foods, 2021, 10(12): 3095. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123095

De Ancos B., Sgroppo S., Plaza L., Cano M.P. Possible nutritional and health-related value promotion in orange juice preserved by high-pressure treatment. Journal of Science Food Agricultural, 2002, 82(8): 790-796. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1093

Devi C.B., Kushwaha A., Kumar A. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015, 52(4): 6821-6827. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1832-1

Dziki D., Rózyło R., Gawlik-dziki U., Świeca M. Current trends in the enhancement of antioxidant activity of wheat bread by the addition of plant materials rich in phenolic compounds. Trend in Food Science and Technology, 2014, 40(1): 48-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2014.07.010

Dushkova M., Koleva A., Genev D., Simitchiev A., Petrova T., Kakalova M. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of extrudates from rice enriched with pumpkin. Food Science And Applied Biotechnology, 2023, 6(1): 103-116. https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2023.v6.i1.224

Emad M.A.K. A review on: Antioxidant and its impact during the bread making process. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 2014, 3(6): 592-596. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140306.26

Fusuan T.O., Fawale S.O., Enwerem D.E., Uche N., Ayodele E.A. Physicochemical, functional and economic analysis of complementary food from cereal, oil seed and animal polypeptide. International Food Research Journal, 2017, 24(1): 275-283. Available at: http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/24%20(01)%202017/(35).pdf

Gemede H. F. Nutritional and antinutritional evaluation of complementary foods formulated from maize, pea, and anchote flours. Food Science and Nutrition, 2020, 8(4): 2156-2164. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1516

Hasmadi M., Siti Faridah A., Salwa I., Matanjun P., Abdul Hamid M., Rameli A.S. The effect of seaweed composite flour on the textural properties of dough and bread. Journal of Applied Phycology, 2014, 26(2): 1057-1062. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-013-0082-8

Igbabul B.D., Bello F.A., Ani E.C. Effect of fermentation on the proximate composition and functional properties of defatted coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) flour. Sky Journal of Food Science, 2014, 3(5): 34-40.

Kaur K., Navnidhi C., Sharma P., Garg M.K. Coconut meal: Nutraceutical importance and food industry application. Foods and Raw Materials, 2019, 7(2): 419-427. https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2019-2-419-427

Kiin-Kabari D.B., Eke-Ejiofor J., Giami S.Y. Functional and pasting properties of wheat/plantain flours enriched with bambara groundnut protein concentrate. International Journal of Food Science, Nutrition and Engineering, 2015, 5(2): 75-81. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.food.20150502.01

Kohajdova Z., Karovicova D., Jurasova M. Influence of carrot pomace flour on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on wheat rolls quality. Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment., 2012, 11(4): 381-387. Available at: https://www.food.actapol.net/volume11/issue4/7_4_2012.pdf

Krulj J., Brlek T., Pezo L., Brkljača J., Popović S., Zeković Z., Solarov M.B. Extraction methods of Amaranthus sp. grain oil isolation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2016, 96(10): 3552-3558. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7540

Lee C.C., Love J.A., Johnson L.A. Sensory and physical properties of cakes with bovine plasma products substituted for eggs. Cereal Chemistry, 1993, 70(1): 18-23. Available at: https://www.cerealsgrains.org/publications/cc/backissues/1993/documents/70_18.pdf

Li L., Yang X. The essential element manganese, oxidative stress and metabolic diseases: links and interactions. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2018, 2018(Spess. Issue): 7580707. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7580707

Makanjuola O.M., Makanjuola, J.O. Evaluation of functional and pasting properties of different corn starch flour. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2018, 3(6): 95-99. Available at: http://eprints.federalpolyilaro.edu.ng/60/1/3-6-22-438%20Makanjuola%20J.%20O%20Journals%20%20%20%204.pdf

Mesfin W., Shimelis A. Effect of soybean/cassava flour blend on the proximate composition of Ethiopian traditional bread prepared from quality protein maize. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 2013, 13(4): 7985-8003. Available at: https://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=nd13062

Mohammed I., Ahmed A.R., Senge B. Dough rheology and bread quality of wheat-chickpea flour blends. Industrial Crops and Products, 2012, 36(1): 196-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.09.006

Oke E.K., Tijani A.O., Akinsola A.O., Abiola O.T., Abamba R.N. Functional, pasting and sensory properties of chinchin produced from wheat-tiger pomace blends. Nature and Science, 2017, 15(9): 74-79. https://doi.org/10.7537/marsnsj150917.13

Olapade A.A., Adeyemo A.M. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours. International Journal of Food Studies, 2014, 3(2): 175-185. https://doi.org/10.7455/ijfs/3.2.2014.a4

Olawuni I.J., Ojukwu M., Nwankandu A., Ibeanichi C. Effect of pH and temperature on functional and physicochemical properties of African yam bean. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science, 2013, 3(1): 34-38.

Olawuyi I.F., Lee W.Y. Quality and antioxidant properties of functional rice, muffins enriched with shiitake mushroom and carrot pomace. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2019, 54(7): 2321-2328. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14155

Olunlade B.A., Ayanleke O.D., Adeola A.A. Influence of soybean or pigeon pea on the proximate composition and sensory attributes of bread from maize-cassava flour blends. Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, 2013, 1(6): 73-79. Available at: https://directresearchpublisher.org/drjafs/files/2013/12/Olunlade-et-al.pdf

Oluwalana I. B., Oluwamukomi M.O., Fagbemi T.N., Oluwafemi G.I. Effects of temperature and period of blanching on the pasting and functional properties of plantain (Musa Parasidiaca) flour. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 2011, 2(8): 164-169. Available at: https://academicjournals.org/journal/JSPPR/article-full-text-pdf/CF481A18955

Onwuka G.I. Food Analysis and Instrumentation (Theory and Practice) (First Edition). Napthali prints, Surulere, Lagos – Nigeria. 2005. 219 pages.

Food Analysis and Instrumentation: Theory and Practice. Naphthali Print, Lagos, 133-137.

Onwurafor E.U., Umego E.C., Uzodinma E.O., Samuel E.D. Chemical, functional, pasting and sensory properties of sorghum-maize-mungbean malt complementary food. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2017, 16(11): 826-834. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2017.826.834

Orhun G.E. Maize for life. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 2013, 3(2): 13-16. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.food.20130302.01. Available at: http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.food.20130302.01.html

Raninen K., Lappi J., Mykkänen H., Poutanen K. Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fibre, inulin and polydextrose. Nutrition Reviews, 2011, 69(1): 9-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00358.x

Ritika B.Y., Baljeet S.Y., Mahima S., Roshanlal Y. Suitability of wheat flour blends with malted and fermented cowpea flour for noodle making. International Food Research Journal, 2016, 23(5): 2193-2202. Available at: http://ifrj.upm.edu.my/23%20(05)%202016/(48).pdf

Singleton V.L., Orthofer R., Lamuela-Raventos R.M. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent methods. Methods in Enzymology, 1999, 99(14): 152-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(99)990 17-1

Tharise N., Julianti E., Nurminah M. Evaluation of physico-chemical and functional properties of composite flour from cassava, rice, potato, soybean and xanthan gum as alternative of wheat flour. International Food Research Journal, 2014, 21(4): 1641-1649. Availabe at: http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/21%20(04)%202014/53%20IFRJ%2021%20(04)%202014%20Julianti%20706.pdf

Ukeyima M.T., Acham I.O., Amaechi B.A. Quality evaluation of maize based complimentary food supplemented with garden peas. Asian Food Science Journal, 2019, 12(1): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/AFSJ/2019/v12i130074

Vasileva A., Durakova A., Kalaydzhiev H., Dimitrova-Dicheva M., Goranova Z., Georgiev K. Whole wheat flour enriched with nectarine powder - antioxidant activity, microbiological and moisture sorption characteristics. Food Science And Applied Biotechnology, 2023, 6(1): 95-102. https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2023.v6.i1.201

Yalegama L.L., Nedra W.C., Karunaratne D., Sivakanesan R., Jayasekara C. Chemical and functional properties of fibre concentrates obtained from by-products of coconut kernel. Food Chemistry, 2013, 141(1): 124-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.118

Zhishen J., Mengcheng T., Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 1999, 64(4): 555-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2

Žilić S., Serpen A., Akıllıogˇlu G., Gökmen V., Vanćetović J. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of colored maize (Zea mays L.) kernels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012, 60(5): 1224-1231. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf204367z

How to Cite
BELLO, Florence Abolaji; ESIN, Unyime D.. Effect of cowpea and coconut pomace flour blend on the proximate composition, antioxidant and pasting properties of maize flour. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 282-294, oct. 2023. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <https://www.ijfsab.com/index.php/fsab/article/view/280>. Date accessed: 25 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2023.v6.i2.280.