Main Article Content

Adelina Lazarova Vasileva Albena Durakova Hristo Kalaydzhiev Milena Dimitrova-Dicheva Zhivka Goranova Kliment Georgiev

Abstract

The aims of the current scientific study are to present the initial data research on the flour mixture of whole wheat flour enriched with nectarine powder of Bulgarian origin – intended for sponge cake production - was created. The natural content of the antioxidants was evaluated through the in vitro methods DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC. The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and monolayer moisture content (MMC) were investigated at 10°C, 25°C, and 40°C, resembling the diapason of temperature conditions in the storage house. The water activity (from 0.1 to 0.9) is provided through saturated salt solutions of LiCl, CH3COOK, MgCl2, K2CO3, MgNO3, NaBr, NaCl, and KCl. The obtained adsorption and desorption EMC declare the tendency – with its increase, the temperature decrease at the constant value of aw. According to Brunauer’s classification, sorption isotherms are of the second class, showing their characteristic S-shape profile. The modeling of the obtained sorption data includes their mathematical description using one of the three-parametrical models of modified Halsey, Oswin, Chung-Pfost, and Henderson. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller linearization was presented to the values of the monolayer moisture content – for the adsorption process they are between 5.78% and 8.94%; and for the desorption - between 7.25% and 8.89%.

Article Details

References

AOAC Official Method 988.12 (44.1.30) Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Assay for Total Carbohydrate Determination using Ultraviolet-Visible Range Spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Gaithersburg, MD, USA, AOAC International, 2003.

AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 960.39 Gravimetric Method for Determination of Crude Fat in Meat and Meat Products., 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical, Washington, DC., 1990.

BDS EN ISO 16649-2: 2014, Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli — Part 2: Colony-count technique at 44 degrees C using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-glucuronide. (ISO 16649-2: 2014). Sofia, Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Institute of Standardization, 2014 [in Bulgarian]

BDS EN ISO 21527-2: 2011, Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs — Horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds — Part 2: Colony count technique in products with water activity less than or equal to 0,95. (ISO 21527-2: 2011). Sofia, Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Institute of Standardization, 2011 [in Bulgarian]

BDS EN ISO 4833-1: 2013, Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms - Part 1: Colony count at 30 degrees C by the pour plate technique. (ISO 4833-1: 2013). Sofia, Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Institute of Standardization, 2013 [in Bulgarian]

BDS EN ISO 6579-1: 2017, Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella - Part 1: Detection of Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579-1:2017). Sofia, Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Institute of Standardization, 2017 [in Bulgarian]

BDS EN ISO 6888-1:2022, Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) - Part 1: Method using Baird-Parker agar medium (ISO 6888-1:2021). Sofia, Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Institute of Standardization, 2021 [in Bulgarian]

Labuza T., Bell L. Determination of moisture sorption isotherms. In: Moisture Sorption: Practical Aspects of Isotherm Measurement and Use (Second Edition). The American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA, 2000, pp. 33-56. Print ISBN: 978-1-891-12718-2.

Bento C., Gonçalves A.C., Silva B., Silva L.R. Peach (Prunus persica): Phytochemicals and health benefits. Food Reviews International, 2020, 38(8): 1703-1734. https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2020.1837861

Bogoeva A.L., Durakova A.G., Pavlov A.I., Yanakieva V.B., Vrancheva R.Z., Bozadzhiev B.V., Choroleeva K.B. Antioxidant activity and storage regime of defatted grape seeds flour. Wine Studies, 2017, 6(1): 6695. https://doi.org/10.4081/ws.2017.6695

Bogoeva A. Sorption characteristics of flour mixtures enriched with grape seeds flour of Bulgarian and French raw materials. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 2020, 21(3): 609-617. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/21.3.2711

Bressiani J., Oro T., Santetti G.S., Almeida J.L., Bertolin T.E., Gómez M., Gutkoski L.C. Properties of whole grain wheat flour and performance in bakery products as a function of particle size. Journal of Cereal Science, 2017, 75(5): 269-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2017.05.001

Brunauer S., Deming L.S., Deming W.E., Teller E. On a theory of the van der Waals adsorption of gases. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1940, 62(7): 1723-1732.https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01864a025

Brunauer S., Emmett P.H., Teller E. Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938, 60(2): 309-319.https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01269a023

Burton-Freeman B.M., Sandhu A.K., Edirisinghe I. Mangos and their bioactive components: Adding variety to the fruit plate for health. Food and Function, 2017, 8(9): 3010-3032.https://doi.org/10.1039/C7FO00190H

Dhalaria R., Verma R., Kumar D., Puri S., Tapwal A., Kumar V., Nepovimova E., Kuca K. Bioactive compounds of edible fruits with their anti-aging properties: A comprehensive review to prolong human life. Antioxidants, 2020, 9(11): 1123.https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111123

Durakova A. Sorption Characteristics of Bulgarian Penny Buns (Boletus Edulis). 9th International Conference on Thermal Equipments, Renewable Energy and Rural Development (TE-RE-RD 2020). E3S Web Conferences, 2020, 180(): 03008.https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202018003008

Durakova A., Vasileva A., Choroleeva K. Adsorption characteristics of a ready-made mixture of linseed and dried fruit. BIO Web of Conferences. 2022, 45 (2022) 03001.https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20224503001

Eskicioglu V., Kamiloglu S., Nilufer-Erdil D. Antioxidant dietary fibres: Potential functional food ingredients from plant processing by-products. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 2016, 33(6): 487-499.https://doi.org/10.17221/42/2015-CJFS

Fontana A.J.Jr., Carter B.P. Measurement of Water Activity, Moisture Sorption Isotherm, and Moisture Content of Foods. In: Water Activity in Foods: Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition (G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, A.J. Fontana Jr., Sh.J. Schmidt, T.P. Labuza Eds). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2020, рр. 207-226. Print ISBN: 978-1-1187-6831-0, Online ISBN: 978-1-1187-6598-2.https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118765982.ch8

Forghani F., den Bakker M., Futral A.N., Diez-Gonzalez F. Long-term survival and thermal death kinetics of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O157 in wheat flour. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2018, 84(13): e00283-18.https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00283-18

Gil M.I., Tomás-Barberán F.A., Hess-Pierce B., Kader A. A. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamin C contents of nectarine, peach, and plum cultivars from California. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002, 50(17): 4976-4982.https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020136b

Gómez M., Gutkoski L.C., Bravo‐Núñez Á. Understanding whole‐wheat flour and its effect in breads: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2020, 19(6): 3241-3265.https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12625

Guo C., Bi J., Li X., Lyu J., Zhou M., Wu X. Antioxidant profile of thinned young and ripe fruits of Chinese peach and nectarine varieties. International Journal of Food Properties, 2020, 23(1): 1272-1286.https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020.1797782

Iglesias H., Chirife J. Handbook of Food Isotherms: Water Sorption Parameters for Food and Food Components (Second Edition). Academic Press. 2012, 360 pages. Print ISBN: 978-0124316249

International Association for Cereal Science and Technology Method 104/1: Determination of ash in cereals and cereal products. International Association for Cereal Science and Technology, Vienna, 1990.

ISO 11085:2015. Cereals, cereals-based products and animal feeding stuffs - Determination of crude fat and total fat content by the Randall extraction method. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2015.

ISO 4832:2006. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms - colony-count technique. Brussels, Belgium: International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006.

ISO 5489:1981. Agricultural food products -Determination of crude fibre content, general method. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1981.

Ivanov I., Vrancheva R., Marchev A., Petkova N., Aneva I., Denev P., Georgiev V., Pavlov A. Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds in Bulgarian Fumaria species. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2014, 3(2): 296-306.https://www.ijcmas.com/vol-3-2/Ivan%20G.%20Ivanov,%20et%20al.pdf

Kapsalis J.G. Influences of Hysteresis and Temperature on Moisture Sorption Isotherms. In: Water Activity: Theory and Applications to Food., First Edition (J.G. Kapsalis Ed). CRC Press, Routledge, Boca Raton. 1987, рр. 173-213. Print ISBN: 978-0-203-73414-8.https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203734148

Khanom A., Shammi T., Kabir Md. Sh. Determination of microbiological quality of packed and unpacked bread. Stamford Journal of Microbiology, 2016, 6(1): 24-29.https://doi.org/10.3329/sjm.v6i1.33515

Labuza T.P., Altunakar B. Water Activity Prediction and Moisture Sorption Isotherms. In: Water Activity in Foods: Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition (G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, A.J. Fontana Jr., Sh.J. Schmidt, T.P. Labuza Eds). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2020, рр. 161-205. Print ISBN: 978-1-1187-6831-0, Online ISBN: 978-1-1187-6598-2.https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118765982.ch7

Maheshwari S., Kumar V., Bhadauria G., Mishra A. Immunomodulatory potential of phytochemicals and other bioactive compounds of fruits: A review. Food Frontiers, 2022, 3(2): 221-238.https://doi.org/10.1002/fft2.129

Mancebo C.M., Rodriguez P., Gómez M. Assessing rice flour-starch-protein mixtures to produce gluten free sugar-snap cookies. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2016, 67(4): 127-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.11.045

Mihaylova D., Popova A., Goranova Z., Petkova D., Doykina P., Lante A. The Perspective of Nectarine Fruit as a Sugar Substituent in Puddings Prepared with Corn and Rice Starch. Foods, 2021, 10(11): 2563.https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112563

Mitic V., Ilic M., Dimitrijevic M., Cvetkovic J., Ciric S., Jovanovic V.S. Chemometric characterization of peach, nectarine and plum cultivars according to fruit phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Fruits, 2016, 71(1): 57-66.https://doi.org/10.1051/fruits/2015042

Muzaffar K., Kumar P. Moisture sorption isotherms and storage study of spray dried tamarind pulp powder. Powder Technology, 2016, 291(4): 322-327.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2015.12.046

Palamthodi S., Shimpi S., Tungare K. A study on nutritional composition and functional properties of wheat, ragi and jackfruit seed composite flour. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, 2021, 4(1): 63-75.https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2021.v4.i1.107

STATISTICA, v. 12, StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA, 2012. Available at: https://statisticasoftware.wordpress.com/2013/05/15/statsoft-releases-version-12-of-statistica-software/

Tekgül Y. Optimization of foaming process: drying behaviour, physicochemical, and powder properties of hot air-assisted foam-mat dried nectarine. International Journal of Food Engineering, 2021, 17(10): 815-826.https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0134

Tomás-Barberán F.A., Ruiz D., Valero D., Rivera D., Obón C., Sánchez-Roca C., Gil M.I. Health Benefits from Pomegranates and Stone Fruit, Including Plums, Peaches, Apricots and Cherries. In: Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods (M. Skinner, D. Hunter Eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2013, рр. 125-167, Print ISBN: 978-0-470-67497-0, Online ISBN: 978-1-1186-3555-1.https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118635551.ch7

Troller J.A., Christian J.H.B. Water Activity - Basic Concepts. In: Water Activity and Food (J.A. Troller, J.H.B. Christian Eds). Food Science and Technology Series, Elsevier Inc., Academic Press. 1978, рр. 1-12. Print ISBN: 978-0-12-700650-5.https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-700650-5.X5001-X

Wolf W., Spiess W.E.L., Jung G. Standardization of Isotherm Measurements (Cost-Project 90 and 90 BIS) In: Properties of Water in Foods. (D. Stimatos, J.L. Multon Eds.). Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrech, 1985, pp. 661-679, Print Hardcover ISBN: 978-90-247-3153-4, Softcover ISBN: 978-94-010-8756-8, eBook ISBN: 978-94-009-5103-7.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5103-7_40

Xu J., Li Y., Zhao Y., Wang D., Wang W. Influence of antioxidant dietary fiber on dough properties and bread qualities: A review. Journal of Functional Foods, 2021, 80(5): 104434.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2021.104434

Zhang L., Sun D.W., Zhang Z. Methods for measuring water activity (aw) of foods and its applications to moisture sorption isotherm studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2017, 57(5): 1052-1058.https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1108282

Zlateva D., Stefanova D., Chochkov R.M., Ivanova P. Study on the impact of pumpkin seed flour on mineral content of wheat bread. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, 2022, 5(2): 131-139.https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2022.v5.i2.177

How to Cite
VASILEVA, Adelina Lazarova et al. Whole wheat flour enriched with nectarine powder - antioxidant activity, microbiological and moisture sorption characteristics. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 95-102, mar. 2023. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <https://www.ijfsab.com/index.php/fsab/article/view/201>. Date accessed: 17 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2023.v6.i1.201.