Main Article Content

Ivan Chenkov Bakardzhiyski

Abstract

Protein profile change of Bulgarian Chardonnay wine under the influence of treatment with bentonite was studied. Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford assay, while fractionation was performed via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The amount of protein found in the original wine was 147.1 mg/dm3, expressed as bovine serum albumin divided into 9 electrophoretic fractions. Low molecular weight fractions with molecular weights of 20, 22 and 24 kDa, were predominant whose share was equal to 65 % of the total electrophoretic fraction profile of wine. The examined wine was treated with four different types of bentonite-two sodium, one activated calcium and one sodium-calcium bentonites. They were added in increasing doses, covering the range of 0.2-3 g/dm3. At lower treatment doses (0.2-0.8 g/dm3), differences in protein concentration reduction were observed. Above the dose of 0.8 g/dm3, an equalization of their effect compared to the reduction of total protein content was reported. Affinity, however small, of the studied bentonites to the different molecular fractions of proteins was observed.

Article Details

References

Bakardzhiyski I., Chobanova D. Study of the protein profile of wines from a variety Traminer obtained by different technological modes of alcoholic fermentation. Lozarstvo and Vinarstvo, 2013, (61)1: 25-35. [in Bulgarian]

Bakardzhiyski I., Chobanova D., Bambalov K. Research on some important from an enological point of view of bentonite properties offered on Bulgarian market. Food Processing Industry Magazine, 2016, 65(10): 29-32. [in Bulgarian]

Bayly F., Berg H. Grape and wine proteins of white wine varietals. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1967, 18(1): 18-32.

Bradford M. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 1976, 72(1-2): 248-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

Celotti E., Barahona M., Bellantuono E., Cardona J., Roman T., Nicolini G., Natolino A. High-power ultrasound on the protein stability of white wines: Preliminary study of amplitude and sonication time. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2021, 147(7): 111602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111602

Chagas R., Ferreira L., Laia C., Monteiro S., Ferreira R., The challenging SO2-mediated chemical build-up of protein aggregates in wines. Food Chemistry, 2016, 192(1): 460-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.052

Chagas R., Lourenço A., Monteiro S., Ferreira R., Ferreira L. Is caffeic acid, as the major metabolite present in Moscatel wine protein haze hydrolysate, involved in protein haze formation? Food Research International, 2017, 98(8): 103-109. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2016.09.007

Chobanova D. Enology (exercise guide). Academic Publishing House of UFT-Plovdiv, 2007, Print ISBN 978-954-24-0082-0. [in Bulgarian]

Chobanova D. Study of the influence of phenolic compounds on the stability of white wines. PhD thesis by VIHVP, Plovdiv of Bulgaria, 1988. [in Bulgarian]

Dambrouck T., Marchal R., Marchal-Delahaut L., Parmentier M., Maujean A., Jeandet P. Immunodetection of proteins from grapes and yeast in a white wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, 51(9): 2727-2732. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0208435

Dorrestein Е., Ferreira R., Laureano O., Teixeira A. Electrophoretic and FPLC analysis of soluble poteins in four portuguese wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1995, 46(1): 235-242.

Dupin I., McKinnon B., Ryan C., Boulay M., Markides A., Jones G., Williams P., Waters E. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannoproteins that protect wine from protein haze: Their release during fermentation and lees contacts and a proposal for their mechanism of action. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2000, 48(8): 3098-3105. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0002443

Fukui M., Yokotsuka K. Content and origin of protein in white and red wines: changes during fermentation and maturation. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 2003, 54(3): 178-188.

Fusia M., Mainente F., Rizzi C., Zoccatelli G., Simonato B. Wine hazing: A predictive assay based on protein and glycoprotein independent recovery and quantification. Food Control, 2010, 21(6): 830-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.11.009

Hsu J., Heatherbell D. Heat unstable proteins in wine. I. Characterization and removal by bentonite fining and heat treatment. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1987a, 38(1): 11-16.

Hsu J., Heatherbell D. Heat-unstable proteins in grape juice and wine. IІ. Characterization and removal by ultrafiltration. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1987b, 38(1): 17-22.

Hsu J., Heatherbell D. Isolation and characterization of soluble proteins in grapes, grape juice and wine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1987c, 38(1): 6-10.

Hung W. Protein stabilisation of New Zealand Sauvignon blanc. PhD thesis by Lincoln University of New Zealand, 2010. Available on-line at: https://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10182/2366/hung_phd.pdf?sequence=3

Jackson R., Wine science. Principles and applications, Fifth edition, Elsevier, 2020, ISBN: 978-0-12-816118-0. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-04224-6

Jones-Moore H., Jelley R., Marangon M., Fedrizzi B. The interactions of wine polysaccharides with aroma compounds, tannins, and proteins, and their importance to winemaking. Food Hydrocolloids, 2022, 123(2): 107150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2021.107150

Koch J., Sajak E. A review and some studies on grape protein. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1959, 10(1): 114-123.

Laemmli, U.K. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 1970, 227(8): 680–685.https://doi.org/10.1038/227680a0

Marangon M., Stockdale V., Munro P., Trethewey T., Schulkin A., Holt H., Smith P. Addition of carrageenan at different stages of winemaking for white wine protein stabilization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013, 61, 26(6): 6516-6524. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf401712d

Melnik I., Chebukin P., Bochevar R., Mitev P., Stoyanov N. The comparative characteristic of “ENOGRUP” bentonites for stabilization of white table wine. Proceedings Biotechnologies and Food Technologies, University of Ruse Angel Kanchev, 2015, 54(10.2): 82-86. Available at: https://conf.uni-ruse.bg/bg/docs/cp15/10.2/10.2-14.pdf

Morata A. White Wine Technology. Elsevier, 2022, ISBN: 978-0-12-823497-6 https://doi.org/10.1016/C2020-0-00376-2

Osorio-Macías D., Bolinsson H., Linares-Pasten H., Ferrer-Gallego R., Choi J., Penarrieta J. M., Bergenståhl B. Characterization on the impact of different clarifiers on the white wine colloids using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, Food Chemistry, 2022, 381(7): 132123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132123

Owusu-Apenten R. Food protein analysis: quantitative effects on processing. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002, 463 pages. pp. 195-220, Print ISBN: 0-8247-0684-6. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203910580

Pargoletti E., Sanarica L., Ceruti M., Elli F., Pisarra C., Cappelletti G. A comprehensive study on the effect of bentonite fining on wine charged model molecules. Food Chemistry, 2021, 338(2): 127840. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127840

Pocock K., Waters E. Protein haze in bottled white wines: How well do stability tests and bentonite fining trials predict haze formation during storage and transport? Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 2006, 12(3): 212-220.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.2006.tb00061.x

Pocock K., Alexander G., Hayasaka Y., Jones P., Waters E. Sulfate-a candidate for the missing essential factor that is required for the formation of protein haze in white wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2007, 55(5): 1799-1807.https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062658n

Reynolds A. Managing Wine Quality. Elsevier, 2022, ISBN: 978-0-08-102066-1 (online).https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102065-4.09991-0

Sauvage F., Bach B., Moutounet M., Vernhet A. Proteins in white wines: Thermo-sensitivity and differential adsorbtion by bentonite. Food Chemistry, 2010, 118(1): 26-34.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.080

Siebert K., Carrasco A., Lynn, P. Formation of protein-polyphenol haze in beverages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1996, 44(8): 1997-2005. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf950716r

Silva-Barbieri D., Salazar F., López F., Brossard N., Escalona N., Pérez-Correa J. Advances in White Wine Protein Stabilization Technologies. Molecules, 2022, 27(4): 1251. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041251

Tattersall D., Van Heeswijck R., Høj P. Identification and characterization of a fruit-specific, thaumatin-like protein that accumulates at very high levels in conjunction with the onset of sugar accumulation and berry softening in grapes. Plant Physiology, 1997, 114(3): 759-769.https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.3.759

Van Sluyter S, Warnock N., Schmidt S., Anderson P., Van Kan J., Bacic A., Waters E. Aspartic acid protease from botrytis cinerea removes haze-forming proteins during white winemaking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013, 61(40): 9705-9711. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf402762k

TotalLab, trial version. Available at: www.totallab.com

How to Cite
BAKARDZHIYSKI, Ivan Chenkov. Protein change in Chardonnay wine from Bulgaria after treatment with different types of bentonites. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 140-150, oct. 2022. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <https://www.ijfsab.com/index.php/fsab/article/view/189>. Date accessed: 09 dec. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.30721/fsab2022.v5.i2.189.