Main Article Content

Denka Zlateva Dana Stefanova Rosen Milanov Chochkov Petya Ivanova


The incorporation of various flours from seeds into wheat bread can improve its nutritional value. Pumpkin seeds flour can be a good alternative for nutritional enrichment of food products because of its high content of protein, oil, dietary fibers and minerals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pumpkin seed flour (PSF), added in the amount of 5% and 10% by the weight of flour, on the content of minerals in wheat bread. It was found that wheat bread with pumpkin seed flour had a significantly higher levels of minerals as compared to the control; except for sodium. Moreover, the minerals content of bread was found to increase markedly with increasing the substitutions ratio. The most pronounced was the effect of enrichment on the content of iron - at the addition of 10% PSF it was 8.98 mg/kg, which is 6.7 times higher than the control sample (1.34 mg/kg). A considerable increase in the content of magnesium and phosphorus was also found. Regarding the microelements, the amount of zinc increased most significantly – 5.09 mg/kg in the control sample; 9.27 mg/kg into the sample with 5% PSF; 12.7 mg/kg in the bread with 10% PSF added.

Article Details


Abdelghafor R., Mustafa A., Ibrahim A., Krishnan P. Quality of bread from composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2011, 3(1): 9-15.

Akintade A., Awolu O., Ifesan B. Nutritional evaluation of fermented, germinated and roasted pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed flour. Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Series E: Food Technology, 2019, 23(2): 179-186.

Alfawaz M. Chemical Composition and Oil Characteristics of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima) Seed Kernels. Food Science and Agriculture Research, 2004, 129: 5–18.

Alobo A. Effect of sesame seed on the millet biscuit characteristics. Plants Food Human Nutrition, 2001, 56(2): 195–202.

Apostol L., Moșoiu C., Iorga S., Sanmartin A. Effect of the addition of pumpkin powder on the physicochemical qualities and rheological properties of wheat flour. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 2020, 25(3): 1594-1600. DOI: 10.25083/rbl/25.3/1594.1600

Camaschella C. Iron deficiency. Blood, 2019, 133(1): 30–39.

Cauvain S. How much more bread research do we need. Getreidetechnologie, 2004, 58: 364-366.

Chung K., Shin K., Hwang H., Choi K. Chemical composition of nuts and seeds sold in Korea. Nutrition Resource Practice, 2013, 7(2): 82-88.

Davies C., Jamabo N. Determination of mineral contents of edible parts of shellfishes from Okpoka creeks in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, 2016, 2(2): 10-18. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.10037.68326

Dewettinck K., Van Bockstaele F., Kühne B., Van de Walle D., Courtens T., Gellynck X. Nutritional value of bread: Influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception, Journal of Cereal Science, 2008, 48(2): 243-257.

Dhiman A., Sharma K., Attri S. Functional constituents and processing of pumpkin: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2009, 46(5): 411-417.

El-Adawy T., Taha K. Characteristics and composition of different seeds oils and flours. Food Chemistry, 2001, 74(1): 47-54.

El-Demery M., Lotfy L. Quality characteristics of pan bread enriched with defatted germinated pumpkin seed flour. Alexandria Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015, 12(1): 29-37. DOI: 10.12816/0025354

El-Ghany A., Dalia A., Soha M. Biological study on the effect of pumpkin seeds and zinc on reproductive potential of male rats. The 5th Arab and 2nd International Annual Scientific Conference on: Recent trends of developing institutional and academic performance in higher specific education institutions in Egypt and Arab world, Mansoura University, Egypt, 2010, pp. 2384-2404.

El-Soukkary F. Evaluation of pumpkin seed products for bread fortification. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2001, 56(4): 365-384.

EMEA. Guideline on the Specification Limits for Residues of Metal Catalysts or Metal Reagents. European Medicines Agency, 2008. Available at:

Glew R., Glew R., Chuang L., Huang Y., Millson M., Constans D., Vanderjagt D. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 2006, 61(2): 51-56.

Gorgonio C., Pumar M., Mothe C. Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima. L.) flour and cornstarch. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 2011, 31(1): 109-118.

Hamed S., El Hassan N., Hassan A., Eltayeb M., Babiker E. Nutritional evaluation and physiochemical properties of processed pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis hook) seed flour. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2008, 7(2): 330-334. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2008.330.334

Ike C., Emeka-Ike P., Ogwuegbu H. Nutritional and microbiological qualities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed composite flours. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2020, 12(03): 051-060.

Jeevitha G., Bhuvana S. Study on the impact of pumpkin seed flour on whole wheat bread characteristics. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 2019, 7(4): 273-277.

Kanwal S., Raza S., Naseem K., Amjad M., Bibi N., Gillani M. Development, physico-chemical and sensory properties of biscuits supplemented with pumpkin seeds to combat childhood malnutrition in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 2015, 28(4): 400-405.

Karim N. Copper and Human Health - A Review. Journal of Bahria University Medical and Dental College, 2018, 8(2): 117-122.

Kaur M., Sharma S. Development and nutritional evaluation of cake supplemented with pumpkin seed flour. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 2018, 37(3): 232-236. DOI:10.18805/ajdfr.DR-1310

Kaur A., Sandhu V., Sandhu K. Effects of flaxseed addition on sensory and baking quality of whole wheat bread. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety, 2013, 4(1): 43-54.

Lim T. K. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg, New York, 2012, pp. 272-76. ISBN 978-94-007-1763-3, e-ISBN 978-94-007-1764-0. Available at: DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1764-0

Mason N., Jayne T., Shiferaw B. Africa's rising demand for wheat: trends, drivers, and policy implications. Development Policy Review, 2015, 33(5): 581–613.

Mironeasa S., Codină G., Mironeasa C. Effects of the pumpkin seed addition on bread quality of wheat flour with a very good quality for bread making. In: Modern Technologies in the Food Industry. Proceeding of the International Conference, 2016 October 20-22, Chişinău. pp. 229-237. ISBN 978-9975-87-138-9

Mironeasa S., Codina G., Mironeasa C. The effects of wheat flour substitution with grape seed flour on the rheological parameters of the dough assessed by Mixolab. Journal of Texture Studies, 2012, 43(1): 40-48.

Nielsen F., Ollerich D. Proceedings: Nickel: a new essential trace element. Federation Proceeding, 1974, 33(6): 1767-1772.

Nyam K., Lau M., Tan C. Fibre from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds and rinds: physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and application as bakery product ingredients. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 2013, 19(1): 99-109.

Oyet G., Chibor B. Amino Acid Profile, Mineral Bioavailability, and Sensory Properties of Biscuits Produced from Composite Blends of Wheat, Coconut and Defatted Fluted Pumpkin Seed Flour. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2020, 2(6): 1-7.

Patel S. Pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) seeds as nutraceutic: A review on status quo and scopes. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2013, 6: 183–189.

Prättälä R., Helasoja V., Mykkanen H. The consumption of rye bread and white bread as dimensions of health lifestyles in Finland. Public Health Nutrition, 2001, 4(3): 813-819.

Samaha O. Evaluation of pumpkin fruits as promising crop in food processing. Alexandria J Agric Res, 2002, 47:117-125.

Siega-Riz A., Popkin B., Carson T. Differences in food patterns at breakfast by sociodemographic characteristics among a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Preventive Medicine, 2000, 30(5): 415-424.

Skrbic B., Filipcev B. Nutritional and sensory evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with oleic-rich sunflower seed. Food Chemistry, 2008, 108(1): 119-129.

Soetan K., Olaiya C., Oyewole O. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review. African Journal of Food Science, 2010, 4(5): 200-222.

Vujasinovic V., Djilas S., Dimic E., Romanic R., Takaci A. Shelf life of cold-pressed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil obtainedwith a screw press. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 2010, 87(12): 1497–1505.

Wardlaw G. Perspectives in nutrition (6th Edition). McGraw Hill Companies, New York, U.S.A. 2004 ISBN: 0072442123, ISBN/EAN: 9780072442120

Weegels, P. The future of bread in view of its contribution to nutrient intake as a starchy staple food. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2019, 74(1): 1–9.

Xanthopoulou M., Nomikos T., Fragopoulou E., Antonopoulou S. Antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of pumpkin seed extracts. Food Research International, 2009, 42(5-6): 641–646.

Zambelli B., Ciurli S. Nickel and Human Health. In: Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences (A. Sigel, H. Sigel, R. Sigel Eds). Springer, Dordrecht, 2013, 13, 573 pages. Print ISBN: 978-94-024-0271-1, eBook ISBN: 978-94-007-7500-8,

How to Cite
ZLATEVA, Denka et al. Study on the impact of pumpkin seed flour on mineral content of wheat bread. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 131-139, oct. 2022. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 may 2023. doi: