Main Article Content

Fahid Nazir Muhammad Saeed Asad Abbas Muhammad Rizwan Majeed Muhammad Israr Hamza Zahid Muhamad Ilyas Muhammad Nasir


Dairy products are an excellent source of lactose, water-soluble vitamins, proteins and minerals. They are not considered a key source of bioactive compounds, despite their positive nutritional benefits. The main objective of this study was to develop yogurt spread fortified with Spirulina platensis (SP) and to valorize its impact on the physicochemical properties, shelf life, and quality assessment of the yogurt spread during storage yogurt spread at 0, 14, and 28 d. SP is threadlike blue-green cyanobacteria or microalgae containing polyphenols, phytochemicals like flavonoids and carotenoids which act as antioxidants. Yogurt was developed by using low-fat milk fortified with SP by 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% respectively to assess the shelf life of spread. The acquired data was inspected by using two-factor factorial designs (two-way analysis of variance) and LSD (Least significant difference) test was used for relative comparison of treatments. Physicochemical characteristics in yogurt spread were 75.6% moisture, 0.68% ash, 4.20 pH, 1.16% acidity, and 0.24mg of iron. Sensory evaluation of yogurt spread was done at different storage periods (0, 14, and 28 d). The current study revealed that SP can be fortified in yogurt spread for utilization of its bioactive substance’s benefits which in return can boost human health.

Article Details


Ahmad S., Umar H., Anjum F.M., Murtaza M.A. Quality evaluation of olive oil coated labneh cheese mixed with culinary herbs. Buffalo Bulletin, 2013, 32(Special Issue 2): 1316-1323.

Ahsan S., Arefin M.S., Munshi J.L., Begum M.N., Maliha M., Rahman S., Bhowmik A., Kabir M.S. In vitro antibacterial activity of Spirulina platensis extracts against clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (SUBP03). Stamford Journal of Microbiology, 2015, 5(1): 22-25.

Amellal-Chibane H., Benamara S. Total contents of major minerals in the nature yoghurt and in the yoghurts with the date powder of three dry varieties. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2011, 1(2): 74-78.

Andleeb N., Gilani A.H., Abbas N. Assessment of the quality of conventional yogurt as affected by storage. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 2008, 45(2): 218-222. Available at:

Ani E., Amove J., Igbabul B. Physicochemical, microbiological, sensory properties and storage stability of plant-based yoghurt produced from bambaranut, soybean and Moringa oleifera seed milks. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2018, 6(4): 115-125.

AOAC Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official’s Analytical Chemists (20th ed.). Washington. DC, USA, AOAC International, 2016.

Barkallah M., Dammak M., Louati I., Hentati F., Hadrich B., Mechichi T., Ayadi M.A., Fendri I., Attia H., Abdelkafi S. Effect of Spirulina platensis fortification on physicochemical, textural, antioxidant and sensory properties of yogurt during fermentation and storage. LWT, 2017, 84(11): 323-330.

Beheshtipour H., Mortazavian A.M., Haratian P., Darani K.K. Effects of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis addition on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt and its biochemical properties. European Food Research and Technology, 2012, 235(8): 719-728.

Caleja C., Barros L., Antonio A.L., Carocho M., Oliveira M.B.P., Ferreira I.C. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives. Food Chemistry, 2016, 210(11): 262-268.

Carocho M., Barreiro M.F., Morales P., Ferreira I.C. Adding molecules to food, pros and cons: A review on synthetic and natural food additives. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2014, 13(4): 377-399.

Donmez O., Mogol B.A., Gokmen, V. Syneresis and rheological behaviors of set yogurt containing green tea and green coffee powders. Journal of Dairy Science, 2017, 100(12): 901-907.

Eker M.E., Karakaya, S. Influence of the addition of chia seeds and germinated seeds and sprouts on the nutritional and beneficial properties of yogurt. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 2020, 22(12): 100276.

El-Sayed S.M., El-Sayed H.S., Salama H.H., El-Nor, S.A. Improving the nutritional value and extending shelf life of labneh by adding Moringa oleifera oil. International Journal of Dairy Sciences, 2017, 12(2): 81-92.

Gahruie H.H., Eskandari M.H., Mesbahi G., Hanifpour, M.A. Scientific and technical aspects of yogurt fortification: A review. Food Science and Human Wellness, 2015, 4(1): 1-8.

Ghaeni M., Roomiani, L. Review for application and medicine effects of Spirulina, microalgae. Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies, 2016, 3(2): 114-117.

Gies M., Descalzo A.M., Servent A., Dhuique-Mayer, C. Incorporation and stability of carotenoids in a functional fermented maize yogurt-like product containing phytosterols, LWT, 2019, 111(8): 105-110.

Habib H.M., Kamal H., Ibrahim W.H., Al Dhaheri, A.S. Carotenoids, fat soluble vitamins and fatty acid profiles of 18 varieties of date seed oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 2013, 42(3): 567-572.

Land D.G., Shepherd R. Scaling and ranking methods. In: Sensory Analysis of Foods (J.R. Piggott Ed.), (First Edition). Elsevier Science & Technology, London, 1984, рр. 141-177, Print ISBN: 0853342725.

Maghu T.K., Sharma A., Younis K., Younis, K. Effect of Drumstick Leaves (Moringa oleifera) Incorporation on Quality of Khakhra. In: Plant-Based Natural Products (Shahid-ul-Islam Ed.). Scrivener Publishing LLC. 2017, рр. 129–144, Print ISBN9781119423836, eBook ISBN: 9781119423898,

Mahdian E., Tehrani, M.M. Evaluation the effect of milk total solids on the relationship between growth and activity of starter cultures and quality of concentrated yoghurt. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 2007, 2(5): 587-592. [In Parsi (Farsi)] Available at:

Mahmoud M.M., El-Lamie M.M., Kilany O.E., Dessouki A.A. Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation improves growth performance, feed utilization, immune response, and relieves oxidative stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2018, 72(1): 291-300.

Malik P., Kempanna C., Paul, A. Quality characteristics of ice cream enriched with Spirulina powder. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Science, 2013, 2(1): 44-50.

Montgomery D.C. Design and Analysis of Experiments. (Eighth Edition). John Wiley and Sons. 2013. 757 pages. Print ISBN: 978-1-118-14692-7,

Ozturkoglu-Budak S., Akal C., Yetisemiyen A. Effect of dried nut fortification on functional, physicochemical, textural, and microbiological properties of yogurt. Journal of Dairy Science, 2016, 99(9): 8511-8523.

Perveen R. Chemistry, technological characteristics and functional properties of casein: A review. ELIXIR-Food Science and Nutrition, 2022, 1(1): 07-16.

Ranadheera C.S., Evans C.A., Adams M.C., Baines S.K. Probiotic viability and physico-chemical and sensory properties of plain and stirred fruit yogurts made from goat’s milk. Food Chemistry, 2012, 135(3): 1411-1418.

Randhawa S., Bahna S.L. Hypersensitivity reactions to food additives. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2009, 9(3): 278-283.

Selvamuthukumaran M., Farhath K. Evaluation of shelf stability of antioxidant rich seabuckthorn fruit yoghurt. International Food Research Journal, 2014, 21(2): 14-21.

Sengupta S., Chakraborty A., Bhowal J. Production and evaluation of yogurt with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice. Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary, 2014, 2(5): 249-257. Available at:

Suliburska J., Szulińska M., Tinkov A.A., Bogdański P. Effect of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status in obese patients with treated hypertension. Biological Trace Element Research, 2016, 173(1): 1-6.

Zare F., Boye J.I., Orsat V., Champagne C., Simpson B.K. Microbial, physical and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with lentil flour. Food Research International, 2011, 44(8): 2482-2488.

Zhang L., Zhang X., Liu C., Li C., Li S., Li T., Li D., Zhao Y., Yang Z. Manufacture of Cheddar cheese using probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum K25 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in a mice model. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2013, 29(9): 127-135.

Zheng W., Wang S.Y. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry, 2001, 49(11): 5165-5170.

How to Cite
NAZIR, Fahid et al. Development, quality assessment and nutritive valorization of Spirulina platensis in yogurt spread. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 106-118, oct. 2022. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 18 may 2024. doi: