Main Article Content
In recent years, there has been a significant interest in beverages with increased biological value, such as beer with blueberries. In this study, blueberries were added at the beginning of maturation of lager beer with an initial extract of 12, 14 and 16ºP. The effect of blueberries addition on yeast metabolism was investigated as concentration of ethanol, higher alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and vicinal diketones in the final beer were measured and compared to control samples without blueberries. The results showed that blueberries affected positively ethanol formation only when wort with initial extract of 12°P was used and had no significant effect when wort with higher extract was used. In regard to secondary metabolites, blueberries addition led to a decrease in higher alcohols concentration and an increase in esters amounts. All the carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and vicinal diketones) were higher in beer with blueberries.
Barnes J.S., Nguyen H.P., Shen S., Schug K.A. General method for extraction of blueberry anthocyanins and identification using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 2009, 1216 (23) pp. 4728 -4735 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.04.032
Fanari, M., Forteschi, M., Sanna, M., Piu, P.P., Porcu, M.C., D’hallewin, G., Secchi, N., Zinellu, M., Pretti, L. Pilot plant production of craft fruit beer using Ohmic‐treated fruit puree. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2020, e14339, https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14339
Fotirić Akšić M., Tosti T., Sredojević M., Milivojević J., Meland M., Natić M. Comparison of sugar profile between leaves and fruits of blueberry and strawberry cultivars grown in organic and integrated production system. Plants. 2019, 8(7), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070205
Kalt, W .; McDonald, J. E. Chemical composition of lowbush blueberry cultivars. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 1996, 121, pp. 142-146. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.121.1.142
Marinov M. Practice for analysis and control of alcohol beverages and ethanol, Academic Publisher of UFT, 2010, ISBN 987-954-24-0150-6, p. 196 [in Bulgarian]
Pires E., Teixeira J., Brányik T., Vicente A.
Yeast: The soul of beer's aroma — A review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014, 98 (5), pp. 1937-1949 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-013-5470-0
Russell, I. Yeast. In: Handbook of brewing 3rd edition (G. G. Stewart, I. Russell and A. Anstruther, eds), CRC Press, 2018, pp. 225-274 ISBN:978-1-4987-5191-9 (Hardback)
Skupien, K. Chemical composition of selected cultivars of highbush blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Folia Horticulturae Ann, 2006, 18(2), pp. 47–56.
Tenge, C. Yeast.In: Handbook of brewing: Processes, Technology, Markets ( H.M. Esslinger Ed.), WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 2009, pp. 119-146 ISBN 978-3-527-31674-8
Wang H, Guo X., Hu X., Li T., Fu X., Liu H. R. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Food Chemistry, 2017, 217, pp. 773-781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.002
Verstrepen, K.J., Derdelinckx, G., Dufour, J.-P., Winderickx, J., Thevelein, J.M., Pretorius, I.S. and Delvaux, F.R. Flavor-active esters: adding fruitiness to beer. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2003, 96(2), 110–118.
Zhang, H., . Wang Z.Y, Yang X. , Zhao H.T. , Zhang Y.C., Dong A.J., Jing, J., Wang J. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion Food Chemistry, 2014, 47, pp. 189-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.118
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Licensing Agency
Institutions based in the EU with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Licensing Agency may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Copyright Clearance Center
Institutions based in the US with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Clearance Center may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Other Territories: Please contact your local reproduction rights organization.
If you have any questions about the permitted uses of a specific article, please contact us.
Permissions Department of Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv
Plovdiv 4002, 26 Maritsa Blvd., Bulgaria
Tel.: +359 (32) 603-802
Fax: +359 (32) 644-102