Main Article Content
This study aimed to investigate the biological activity of aqueous mixtures of two essential oils. The mixtures were prepared by mixing certain amounts of lavender and clove oils with distilled water at room temperature. In the case of lavender oil, a relatively clear saturated aqueous phase was obtained after mixing with an excess of the essential oil. The clove oil formed stable oil-in-water emulsions. The antibacterial activity of the samples was tested against two model bacterial strains. The growth of the Gram-negative Escherichia coli K12 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 3562 was determined in 96-well microplates. A more prominent inhibition activity against E. coli K12 strain compared to B. subtilis 3562 for both oil-water mixtures was observed. A disk diffusion test indicated growth inhibition by the lavender oil during the tests against the Gram-positive strain (zones of around 11.7 mm) while clove oil inhibited both bacteria (12 mm - B. subtilis 3562 and 13.66 mm - E. coli K12). The DPPH free radical method showed no antioxidant activity for the aqueous solution of lavender oil. The pure lavender oil exhibited negligible activity compared to the gallic acid reference solution, the clove essential oil, and its emulsion. A quantitative relationship between the content of cloves essential oil in the emulsion and its radical scavenging capacity was demonstrated.
Chaieb K., Hajlaoui H., Zmantar T., Kahla‐Nakbi A.B., Rouabhia M., Mahdouani K., Bakhrouf, A. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 2007, 21(6): 501-506. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2124
Demuner A.J., Almeida Barbosa L.C., Gonçalves Magalhaes C., Da Silva C.J., Alvares Maltha C. R., Lelis Pinheiro A. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile oils of three species of Leptospermum (Myrtaceae) grown in Brazil. Molecules, 2011, 16(2): 1181-1191. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16021181
Espina L., Somolinos M., Lorán S., Conchello P., García D., Pagán R. Chemical composition of commercial citrus fruit essential oils and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes. Food Control, 2011, 22(6): 896-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.11.021
Fischer-Rizzi S. Complete aromatherapy handbook: Essential oils for radiant health. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., New York, 1990, 240 pages. Print ISBN-10: 0806982225; Print ISBN-13: 978-0806982229
Gavarić N., Kladar N., Mišan A., Nikolić A., Samojlik I., Mimica-Dukić N., Božin B. Postdistillation waste material of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) as a potential source of biologically active compounds. Industrial Crops and Products, 2015, 74(11): 457-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.05.070
Georgieva N., Angelova Ts., Juarez A.G.V., Müller R. Antifungal activity of SiO2/cellulose hybrid materials doped with silver nanoparticles against Candida albicans 74. Comptes rendus de l’Acad´emie bulgare des Sciences, 2015, 68(10): 1259-1264. Available at: http://www.proceedings.bas.bg/
Grand View Research, Inc. Essential Oils Market Growth & Trends, 2020. Available at: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/press-release/global-essential-oil-market
Hayes A.J., Leac, D.N., Markham J.L., Markovic B. In vitro cytotoxicity of Australian tea tree oil using human cell lines. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1997, 9(5): 575-582. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1997.9700780
Hili P., Evans C.S., Veness R.G. Antimicrobial action of essential oils: the effect of dimethylsulphoxide on the activity of cinnamon oil. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 1997, 24(4): 269-275. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-765X.1997.00073.x
Hyldgaard M., Mygind T., Louise Meyer R. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2012, 3(1): 12.
Hyldgaard M., Mygind T., Piotrowska R., Foss M., Louise Meyer R. Isoeugenol has a non-disruptive detergent-like mechanism of action. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2015, 6(7): 754.
Hossain S., Heo H., De Silva B.C.J., Wimalasena S.H.M.P., Pathirana H.N.K.S., Heo G.J. Antibacterial activity of essential oil from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) against pet turtle-borne pathogenic bacteria. Laboratory Animal Research, 2017, 33(3): 195-201. https://doi.org/10.5625/lar.2017.33.3.195
Hosseini M., Jamshidi A., Raeisi M., Azizzadeh M. The Antibacterial and antioxidant effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora) essential oils. Journal of Human, Environment and Health Promotion, 2019, 5(2): 86-93.
Hudzicki J. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test protocol, 2009. Available from:
Hussien J., Teshale C., Mohammed J. Assessment of the antimicrobial effects of some Ethiopian aromatic spice and herb hydrosols. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, 7(5): 635-640. http://doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2011.635.640
Jirovetz L., Buchbauer G., Stoilova I., Stoyanova A., Krastanov A., Schmidt E. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006, 54(17): 6303-6307.
Kalemba D.A.A.K., Kunicka A. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2003, 10(10): 813-829.
Kıvrak, Ş. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of eight cultivars of Lavender and Lavandin from western Anatolia. Industrial Crops and Products, 2018, 117(7): 88-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.089
Marín I., Sayas-Barberá E., Viuda-Martos M., Navarro C., Sendra E. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from organic fennel, parsley, and lavender from Spain. Foods, 2016, 5(1): 18.
Ministry of Agriculture Food and Forestry. Crop yields - harvest 2019 (Preliminary data) [Online]. Available at: https://www.mzh.government.bg/media/filer_public/2020/03/31/ra369-preliminarypublicationcrops2019publ.pdf, March 2020, accessed 19.08.2020.
Moon T., Wilkinson J.M., Cavanagh H.M.A. Antibacterial activity of essential oils, hydrosols and plant extracts from Australian grown Lavandula spp. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 2006, 16(1): 9-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijat.2006.01.007
Nikaido H. Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability revisited. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 2003, 67(4): 593-656.
Paibon W., Yimnoi C. A., Tembab N., Boonlue W., Jampachaisri K., Nuengchamnong N., Ingkaninan K. Comparison and evaluation of volatile oils from three different extraction methods for some Thai fragrant flowers. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2011, 33(2): 150-156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00603.x
Peshev D., Peeva L.G., Peev G., Baptista I.I.R. Application of organic solvent nanofiltration for concentration of antioxidant extracts of rosemary (Rosmarinus officiallis L.). Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2011, 89(3): 318-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHERD.2010.07.002
Prusinowska R., Śmigielski K., Stobiecka A., Kunicka-Styczyńska A. Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) - their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Natural Product Research, 2016, 30(4): 386-393. http://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1016939
Schieber A., Mihalev K., Berardini N., Mollov P., Carle R. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 2005, 60(5-6): 379-384. https://doi.org/10.1515/znc-2005-5-602
Sohilait H. J. Chemical composition of the essential oils in Eugenia caryophylata, Thunb from Amboina Island. Science Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 3(6): 95-99. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjc.20150306.13
SpendEdge. What’s Happening in the Global Clove Oil Market? 2018. Available at: https://www.spendedge.com/blogs/trends-global-clove-oil-market
Spiridon I., Colceru S., Anghel N., Teaca C. A., Bodirlau R., Armatu A. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania. Natural Product Research, 2011, 25(17): 1657-1661. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.521502
Stanev S., Zagorcheva T., Atanassov I. Lavender cultivation in Bulgaria - 21st century developments, breeding challenges and opportunities. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 2016, 22(4): 584-590. Available at: http://agrojournal.org/22/04-09.pdf
Trombetta D., Castelli F., Sarpietro M. G., Venuti V., Cristani M., Daniele C., Bisignano, G. Mechanisms of antibacterial action of three monoterpenes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2005, 49(6): 2474-2478. https://doi.org/10.1128%2FAAC.49.6.2474-2478.2005
Wang H.F., Wang Y.K., Yih K.H. DPPH free-radical scavenging ability, total phenolic content, and chemical composition analysis of forty-five kinds of essential oils. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2008, 59(6): 509-522.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Licensing Agency
Institutions based in the EU with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Licensing Agency may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Copyright Clearance Center
Institutions based in the US with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Clearance Center may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Other Territories: Please contact your local reproduction rights organization.
If you have any questions about the permitted uses of a specific article, please contact us.
Permissions Department of Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv
Plovdiv 4002, 26 Maritsa Blvd., Bulgaria
Tel.: +359 (32) 603-802
Fax: +359 (32) 644-102