Main Article Content

Yordan Todorov Gogov Gergana Lyubomirova Krumova-Valcheva


The study on the spread of visible nematode larvae in frozen and fresh ocean and sea fish, marked in Bulgaria, has been conducted during the period 2017-2020. A total of 222 whole fish with head and offal (132 – frozen and 90 – fresh) were collected. The analyses were performed in accordance with Regulation (EC) 2074/2005. Presence of visible nematode larvae with sizes from 3 to 11 mm was found mainly on the walls of the abdominal cavity and the black membrane (94 %) and less frequently on the genitals (3 %). In the frozen fish was found only dead nematode larvae, but in the fresh fishes – alive. The prevalence of nematodes reaches to 100 % and the intensity of invasion varied from 1 to 25 larvae in the mackerel. In the case of fresh sprat, the extension invasion was in the range of 13 to 100 % and the intension invasion from 1 to 58 larvae. In the sample from hake, the prevalence of nematode larvae was 40-100 % and the intensity of the invasion – from 1 to 16 larvae. 50 % of the horse mackerel was infected with 1 to 6 parasites. The highest degree of intensity was found in fresh sprat, where the number of nematode larvae reaches 58. The health standards for fishery products, introduced by Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 do not allow infected fish with visible parasites to be marketed in the Community. The presence of live nematodes in fish creates a potential health risk to public health.

Article Details


Aibinu E.I., Smooker M.P., Lopata L.A. Anisakid nematodes in fish and shellfish – from infection to allergies. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasite and Wildlife, 2019, 9(8): 384-393.

Anshary H., Sriwulan, Freeman M.A., Ogawa K. Occurrence and molecular identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1984 from marine fish in Southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia. Korean Journal Parasitology, 2014, 52(1): 9-19.

Arafa W., Hassan A., Mahrous L., Abdel-Ghany A., Aboelhadid S. Occurrence and molecular characterization of zoonotic Aniskais simplex sensu sticti and Anisakis pegreffii larve in retail-marketed fish. Journal of Food Safety, 2019, 39(5): e12682.

Arizona N., Yamada M., Tegoshi T., Yoshikawa M. Anisakis simplex Sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii: biological characteristics and pathogenetic potential in human anisakiasis. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 2012, 9(6): 517-521.

Asato R., Wakura M., Sneyoshi T. A case of human infection with Anisakis physeteris larvae in Okinawa, Japan. Japanesse Journal of Parazitology, 1991, 40(2): 181-183.

Audicana M.T., Ansotegui I.J., Fernandes de Corres L., Kennedy M.W. Anisakis simplex: dangerous - dead and alive? Trends Parasitology, 2002, 18(1): 20-25.

Cavalleros S., Ligas A., Bruschi F., DꞌAmelio S. Molecular identification of Anisakis spp. from fishes collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean). Veterinary Parasitology, 2012, 187(3-4): 563-566.

Chen H., Shin H. Occurrence and prevalence of fish-borne Anisakis larve in the spotted mackerel Scomber australasicus from Taiwanese waters. Acta Tropica, 2015, 147(5): 61-67.

Cipriani P., Smaldone G., Acerra V., DꞌAngello L., Anastasio A., Bellisario B., Palma G., Cheleschi R., Nasseetti G., Mattiucci S. Genetic identification and distribution of the parasitic larvae of Anisakis pegreffi and Anisakis simplex (s.s.) in European hake Merluccius Merluccius from Tyrrhenian Sea and Spanish Atlantic coast: implications for food safety. International Journal of Food Safety, 2015, 198(4): 1-8.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 2074/2005 of 5 December 2005 laying down implementing measures for certain products under Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and for the organisation of official controls under Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council, derogating from Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Regulations (EC) No 853/2004 and (EC) No 854/2004 (Text with EEA relevance). Journal of the European Communities, 2005, L 338/27.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), Scientific opinion on risk assessment of parasites in fishery products. EFSA journal, 2010, 8(4): 1543.

FAO yearbook. Fishery and aquaculture statistics 2017/FAO annuaire. Statistique despeches et de lꞌaquaculture 2017/FAO anuario. Estadisticas de pesca y acuicultura 2017. Rome/Roma. 2019. eBook ISBN: 978-92-5-131669-6

Gebregziabher H., Degefy H., Tsegay A.K. Prevalence of internal helminth parasites of fish in Gilgel-Gibe river and three selected ponds in and around Jimma Town, South West Ethiopia. Turkish Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences, 2020, 20(9), 693-699.

Gogov Y., Krumova-Valcheva G. Studies on spread of nematodes of fam. Anisakidae in marine and freshwater fish. Proceedings of the National Congress of Medical Geography, Sofia, Proceedings of the Union of Medical Societies and the Bulgarian Society of Medical Geography, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2014, pp. 230-244. ISNN 1314-5096. [In Bulgarian]

Gutierez N.L., Hilborn R., Defeo Q., Leadership social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature, 2011, 470(1): 386-389.

Kuhn T., García-Màrquez J., Klimpel S. Adaptive Radiation within Marine Anisakid Nematodes: A Zoogeographical Modeling of Cosmopolitan, Zoonotic Parasites. PLoS ONE, 2011, 6(12): e28642.

Levsen A., Lunestad B.T., Berland B. Low detection efficiency of candling as a commonly recommended inspection method for nematode larvae in the flesh of pelagic fish. Journal of Food Protection, 2005, 68(4): 828-832.

Mladineo I., Poljak V. Ecology and genetic structure of zoonotic Anisakis spp. from Adriatic commercial fish species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2014, 80(4): 1281-1290.

Pampiglione S., Rivasi F., Criscuolo M., De Benedictis A., Centile A., Russo S., Testini M., Villan M. Human anisakiasis in Italy: a report of eleven new cases. Pathology Research Practice, 2002, 198(6): 429-434.

Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for on the hygiene of foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Communities, 2004, L 139/55.

Shamsi S., Eisenbarth A., Saptarshi S., Beveridge I., Gasse R., Lopata A. Occurrence and abundance of anisakid nematode larvae in five species of fish from Southern Australian waters. Parasitology Research, 2010, 108(10): 927-934.

Shamsi S. Seafood-borne parasitic diseases: A “One-Health” approach is need. Fishes, 2019, 4(1): 9.

Simat V., Zeljka T. Viability of Anisakis spp. larvae after direct exposure to different processing media and non-thermal processing in Anchovy fillets. Fiches, 2019, 4(1): 19.

Smith J.W., Wooten R. Anisakis and anisakiasis. Advanced Parasitology, 1978, 16(1): 93-163.

Suzuki J., Murata R., Hosaka M., Araki I. Risk factors for human Anisakis infection and association between the geographic origins of Scomber japonicas and anisakid nematodes. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2010, 137(1): 88-93.

Torgerson P.R., Macpherson C.N.L. The socioeconomic burden of parasitic zoonoses: Global trends. Veterinary Parasitology, 2011, 182(1): 79-95.

World Health Organisation. Soil transmitted helminths. World Health Organisation, 2012. Available at:

How to Cite
GOGOV, Yordan Todorov; KRUMOVA-VALCHEVA, Gergana Lyubomirova. Study on the spread of nematode larvae in fishes marketed in Bulgaria. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 31-37, mar. 2021. ISSN 2603-3380. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 18 may 2024. doi: