Main Article Content
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of refrigerated storage temperature on the proteolysis in cow's milk Kashkaval cheese. The Kashkaval samples were stored for 12 months at four different temperature regimes - cooled at 4,0 ± 1,0 °C, cooled at 1.0 ± 1.0 °C, superchilled at -7,5 ± 0,5 °C and frozen at -18.0 ± 1.0 °C. The proteolysis in cheese samples was evaluated by determining the non-casein nitrogen (NCN/TN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN/TN) as a percentage of total nitrogen and content of free amino groups. It was found that the storage temperature had a significant impact on the hydrolysis of cheese paracasein. Complete inhibition of the proteolysis was established only in frozen stored Kashkaval. Slight, but statistically significant (P<0,05) increase in the NCN/TN values indicating for retarded proteolysis in samples stored at -7,5 ± 0,5 °C was established. The increasing of the storage temperatures results in increased NCN/TN, NPN/TN values and free amino groups content. The highest proteolysis rate was observed at the refrigeration temperatures of 4.0 ± 1.0 °C. The samples stored at this temperature regime had the highest values of both high molecular weight protein fractions (NCN/TN) and products of deep proteolysis (NPN/TN and free amino groups).
BDS 1671-89. Milk and milk products. Determination of oil content. https://www.bds-bg.org.
BDS 8274-82. 10. Milk and milk products. Method for the determination of sodium chloride in cheese. https://www.bds-bg.org.
Bertola, NC, Califano AN, Bevilacqua AE, Zaritzky NE, (1996). Textural changes and proteolysis of low-moisture mozzarella cheese frozen under various conditions. Food Sci and Tech Lebensmittel Wiss Tech 29(4):470-474. https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1996.0072
Box, G.E.P., Hunter, W.G. and Hunter, J.S. (1978) Statistics for Experimenters. New York: Wiley. https://doi.org/2010.4236/jep.2011.24038
Chen, S.X., Wang, J.Z., Van Kessel, J.S., Ren, F.Z., Zeng, S.S., 2010. Effect of somatic cell count in goat milk on yield, sensory quality, and fatty acid profile of semisoft cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 1345–1354. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2366
Diezhandino, I., Fernandez, D., Gonzalez, L., McSweeney, P. L. H., & Fresno, J. M. (2015). Microbiological, physico-chemical and proteolytic changes in a Spanish blue cheese during ripening (Valdeon cheese). Food Chemistry, 168, 134e141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.039.20Epub202014%20Jul2014
Draper, N. and Smith, H. (1998). Applied Regression Analysis. 3rd Edition., John Wiley, New York, pp: 131-153. ISBN: 978-0-471-17082-2
Elsamani, M. O., Habbani, S. S., Babiker, E. E., & Ahmed, I. A. M. (2014). Biochemical, microbial and sensory evaluation of white soft cheese made from cow and lupin. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.04.027
Fox, P. F., & McSweeney, P. L. H. (1996). Proteolysis in cheese during ripening. Food Reviews International, 12, 457–509. https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129609541091
Hamad, M.N., Ismail, M.M., (2012). Quality of soft cheese made with goat’s milk as affected with the addition of certain essences. J. Anim. Prod. Adv. 2, 121–127. ISSN: 2251-7677
Hayaloglu, A. A., Guven, M., Fox, P. F., & McSweeney, P. L. (2005). Influence of starters on chemical, biochemical, and sensory changes in Turkish White-brined cheese during ripening. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(10), 3460–3474. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73030-7
Kasprzak, K., Wendorff, W.L., Chen, C.M., (1994). Freezing qualities of Cheddar-type cheeses containing varied percentages of fat, moisture, and salt. J. Dairy Sci., 77, pp. 1771-1782. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77118-6
Kenward, M. (1987). A method for comparing profiles of repeated manuscripts. Appl. Stat., 36, pp: 296-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2347788
Osman, A.O., Owni, E., Hamed, O.I.A., 2009. Effect of storage temperature on weight loss, chemical composition, microbiological properties and sensory characteristics of white cheese (Gibna Bayda). Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 5, 498–505. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.145.147
Park Y. W., (1995). Effects of Aging Time and Temperature on Proteolysis of Commercial Goat Milk Cheeses Produced in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science, 78 (12), 2598–2608. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76888-6
Park, Y.W., (2001). Proteolysis and lipolysis of goat milk cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 84 (E. Suppl.), E84–E92. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70202-0
Park, Y.W., Lee J.H., (2006). Effect of freezing on organic acid contents and lipolytic index of plain soft and Monterey Jack goat milk cheeses. Small Ruminant Research 63 (2006) 58–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.02.009
Park, Y.W., (2013). Effect of 5 years long-term frozen storage on sensory quality of Monterey Jack caprine milk cheese. Small Ruminant Research 109 (2013) 136–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.08.002
Sendra E, Mor-Mur M, Pla R, Guamis B. (1999). Evaluation of freezing pressed curd for delayed ripening of semi-hard ovine cheese. Milchwissenchaft 54(10):550-553. ISSN: 00263788
Setyawardani, T., Sumarmono, J., Widayaka, K., (2019). Effect of cold and frozen temperatures on artisanal goat cheese containing probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolates (Lactobacillus plantarum TW14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus TW2). Vet World, 12(3): 409–417. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2019.409-417.20Epub20201920Mar2016
Simov, Zh. i. and Ivanov, G., (2005). Effect of frozen storage and aging on the Kashkaval cheese starter culture. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology (2005) 21: 345–350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-004-4800-x
Sousa, M. J., Ardӧ, Y., McSweeney, P. L. H., (2001). Advances in the study of proteolysis during cheese ripening. International Dairy Journal, Volume 11, Issues 4–7, Pages 327-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(01)00062-0
Tejada, L., Sanchez, E., Gomez, R., Vioque, M., Fernandez-Salguero, J., (2002). Effect of freezing and frozen storage on chemical and microbiological characteristics in sheep milk cheese. J. Food Sci. 67, 126–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb11371.x
Tavaria, F. K., Franco, I., Carballo, F. J., Malcata, F. X. (2003) Amino acid and soluble nitrogen evolution throughout ripening of Serra da Estrela cheese. International Dairy Journal, 13 (7), 537-545. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00060-8
Vakaleris D., V. Price (1959). A rapid spectrophotometric methods for measuring cheese ripening. J. Dairy Sci., Vol. 42, pp. 264–276.https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(59)90562-4
Van Hekken, D.L., Tunick, M.H., Park, Y.W., 2 005. Effect of frozen storage on the proteolytic and rheological properties of soft caprine milk cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 1966–1972. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72872-1
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright Licensing Agency
Institutions based in the EU with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Licensing Agency may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Copyright Clearance Center
Institutions based in the US with a valid photocopying and/or digital license with the Copyright Clearance Center may copy excerpts from books and journals published by the Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv under the terms of their license.
Other Territories: Please contact your local reproduction rights organization.
If you have any questions about the permitted uses of a specific article, please contact us.
Permissions Department of Academic Publishing House of UFT Plovdiv
Plovdiv 4002, 26 Maritsa Blvd., Bulgaria
Tel.: +359 (32) 603-687
Fax: +359 (32) 644-102